First Confidential

 


THIS DAY IN HISTORY - JANUARY 23rd

This Day in History

January 23rd, 3102 BCE

Map Satellite India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet AR, Bangladesh Kali Yuga age of [the demon] Kali, or age of vice is the last of the four stages the world goes through as part of the cycle of yugas described in the Indian scriptures (The other ages are Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga)

3102 BCE - Epoch (origin) of the Kali Yuga.

Wikipedia  Image: Map Satellite India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet AR, Bangladesh.
Kali Yuga age of [the demon] Kali, or age of vice is the last of the four stages the world goes through as part of the cycle of yugas described in the Indian scriptures (The other ages are Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga)


January 23rd, 971

China: the world's most populous country, covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres, second-largest country by land area (China from NASA Wordwind Satellite; Great Wall China, credit National Geographic; LongJi Terrace, credit National Geographic; Great Bear Rainforest, credit Paul Nicklen, National Geographic; Platoons of clay soldiers were buried with China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di, (required a labor force of 700,000 to build), credit O. Louis Mazzatenta, National Geographic)

China:
971 - The war elephant corps of the Southern Han are soundly defeated at Shao by crossbow fire from Song Dynasty troops.
1368 - In a coronation ceremony, Zhu Yuanzhang ascends to the throne of China as the Hongwu Emperor, initiating Ming Dynasty rule over China that would last for three centuries.

Wikipedia  Photo: China from NASA Wordwind Satellite; © Great Wall of China, credit National Geographic; LongJi Terrace, credit National Geographic; Great Bear Rainforest, credit Paul Nicklen, National Geographic; Platoons of clay soldiers were buried with China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di, (required a labor force of 700,000 to build), credit O. Louis Mazzatenta, National Geographic.


January 23rd, 1510

Henry VIII; Coat of Arms and Seal of Henry VIII of England; Catherine of Aragon as a young widow, by court painter Michael Sittow, 1502; Anne Boleyn, Henry's second queen; a later copy of an original painted 1534; Jane Seymour<, Henry's third wife; Anne of Cleves, Henry's forth wife by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1539; Catherine Howard<, Henry's fifth wife, by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1540; Catherine Parr, Henry's sixth and last wife

Henry VIII of England, then 18 years old, appears incognito in the lists at Richmond, and is applauded for his jousting before he reveals his identity.

Wikipedia  Painting: Henry VIII Coat of Arms and Seal of Henry VIII of England; Catherine of Aragon as a young widow, by court painter Michael Sittow, 1502; Anne Boleyn, Henry's second queen; a later copy of an original painted 1534; Jane Seymour, Henry's third wife; Anne of Cleves, Henry's forth wife by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1539; Catherine Howard, Henry's fifth wife, by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1540; Catherine Parr, Henry's sixth and last wife.


January 23rd, 1556

Global Earthquake epicenters

Earthquake:
1556 - Shaanxi earthquake; The deadliest earthquake in history, hits Shaanxi province, China. The death toll may have been as high as 830,000.

Wikipedia  Image: Preliminary Determination of Epicenters / Aleppo Syria; Anchorage, Alaska - March 28, 1964 Prince William Sound USA earthquake and tsunami; 8.9 Mega Earthquake Strikes Japan; Tsunami Swirls Japan's Ibaraki Prefecture March 12 2011. credit NOAA / NGDC, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, USGS, National Geographics.


January 23rd, 1571

Fisheye Royal Exchange, credit Monkey Magic, Flickr; Inside the Royal Exchange in London, credit William Saywel, Flickr

The Royal Exchange opens in London.

Wikipedia  Photo: Fisheye Royal Exchange, credit Monkey Magic, Flickr; Inside the Royal Exchange in London, credit William Saywel, Flickr.


January 23rd, 1849

Elizabeth Blackwell (February 3, 1821 - May 31, 1910) was the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States, as well as the first woman on the UK Medical Register

Elizabeth Blackwell is awarded her M.D. by the Geneva Medical College of Geneva, New York, becoming the United States' first female doctor.

Wikipedia  Photo: Elizabeth Blackwell (February 3, 1821 - May 31, 1910) was the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States, as well as the first woman on the UK Medical Register.


January 23rd, 1855

Minnesota is admitted as the 32nd U.S. State on May 11th, 1858

The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, Minnesota, a crossing made today by the Father Louis Hennepin Bridge.

Wikipedia  Photo: Minnesota Minneapolis Reflection at night ● Pose Lake in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness ● Palisade Head on Lake Superior formed from a Precambrian rhyolitic lava flow ● Tilted beds of the Middle Precambrian Thompson Formation in Jay Cooke State Park ● A groundhog seen in Minneapolis, along the banks of the Mississippi River.


January 23rd, 1870

American Indians collage

American Indian Wars:
1870 - Marias Massacre: In Montana, U.S. cavalrymen kill 173 Native Americans, mostly women and children.

Wikipedia  Photos: American Indians - Chief Crazy Horse, Tashunca-uitco (1849 - 1877) ● Geronimo Apache Chief (1829 - 1909) ● Indian Chief 'Two Eagles'; Crow Indian Chief ● Snake Cheif ● Band of Chiricahua Apache Indians, followers of legendary renegade Geronimo, attending a peace negotiation after a long struggle against U.S. government attempts to force them onto reservations - Tombstone, Arizona (1886), Life Magazine ● American Horse - Oglala ● Native American Arapaho Indian ● Washakie, Shoshone leader ● Arapaho American Indian Chief.


January 23rd, 1879

David Livingstone becomes the first European to see the Victoria Falls in what is now present-day Zambia-Zimbabwe A n'anga (or faith healer) of the majority (70%) Shona people, holding a kudu horn trumpet; Matabele and Zulu warriors, traditions continue to this day in ceremonies for special events

Anglo-Zulu War:
1879 - Battle of Rorke's Drift ends: 139 British soldiers successfully defend their garrison against an intense assault by four to five thousand Zulu warriors.

Wikipedia  Photo: Zambia Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe;
A n'anga (or faith healer) of the majority (70%) Shona people, holding a kudu horn trumpet; Matabele and Zulu warriors, traditions continue to this day in ceremonies for special events.


January 23rd, 1899

Philippine-American War: Filipinos under Juan Cailles defeat Americans under Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham at Mabitac

Philippine-American War:
1899 - Emilio Aguinaldo is sworn in as President of the First Philippine Republic.

Wikipedia  Image: Philippine-American War; 17th U.S. Infantry boarding a train for the front in the Philippines; Lt. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt on 1 July 1898. he is pictured along with his fellow 'Rough Riders'; Photographs of dead Filipino soldiers lying in trenches were often taken by U. S. soldiers and journalists and included in commemorative albums (F. Tennyson Neely, Fighting in the Philippines: A Photographic Record of the Philippine-American War (London, 1899); Sonnichsen, quoted in Russell Roth, Muddy Glory: America’s “Indian Wars” in the Philippines, 1899-1935 (West Hanover, MA, 1981); Soldiers of the Philippine Republic (From Leon Wolff, Little Brown Brother: How the United States Purchased and Pacified the Philippines (Garden City, NY, 1961)), photographs after p. 49); Satellite image of Philippines, NASA.


January 23rd, 1937

World War II: Second firestorm raid on Germany, the Royal Air Force conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf; Battle of Leyte Gulf; The first kamikaze attack: A Japanese plane carrying a 200-kilogram (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off Leyte Island World War II: German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944) World War II: Eastern Front (World War II); was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland, and some other Allies which encompassed Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945

Pre World War II:
1937 - In Moscow, 17 leading Communists go on trial accused of participating in a plot led by Leon Trotsky to overthrow Joseph Stalin's regime and assassinate its leaders.
World War II:
1941 - Charles Lindbergh testifies before the United States Congress and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler.
1942 - Battle of Rabaul; begins, the first fighting of the New Guinea campaign.
1943 - Troops of Montgomery's 8th Army capture Tripoli in Libya from the German-Italian Panzer Army.
1943 - Pacific War; Australian and American forces finally defeat the Japanese army in Papua. (This turning point in the Pacific War marks the beginning of the end of Japanese aggression.)
1943 - Guadalcanal campaign; The Battle of Mount Austen, the Galloping Horse, and the Sea Horse on Guadalcanal ends.
1945 - Operation Hannibal; launched by Karl Dönitz.

Wikipedia  Photo: Bombing of Dresden in World War II; August Schreitmüller's sculpture 'Goodness' surveys Dresden after a firestorm started by Allied bombers in 1945. USS Bunker Hill was hit by kamikazes piloted by Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa and another airman on 11 May 1945. 389 personnel were killed or missing from a crew of 2,600; Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa, who flew his aircraft into the USS Bunker Hill during a Kamikaze mission on 11 May 1945; Kamikaze Missions - Lt Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank is trailing fuel vapor and/or smoke 25 November 1944.
German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944), credit German History in Documents and Images GHDI.

Eastern Front (World War II); Germans race towards Stalingrad. August 1942; Soviet children during a German air raid in the first days of the war, June 1941, by RIA Novosti archive; Soviet sniper Roza Shanina in 1944. About 400,000 Soviet women served in front-line duty units Caucasus Mountains, winter 1942/43; Finnish ski patrol: the invisible enemy of the Soviet Army with an unlimited supply of skis; Men of the German Engineers Corps cross a river which is swollen after the first autumn rains, to strengthen bridges linking the German positions on the central front in Russia. by Keystone / Getty Images. October 1942; Russian snipers fighting on the Leningrad front during a blizzard. Photo by Hulton Archive / Getty Images, 1943; German soldiers surrendering to the Russians in Stalingrad, the soldier holding the white flag of surrender is dressed in white so that there could be no doubt of his intentions, a Russian soldier is on the right of the photograph. by Keystone / Getty Images, January 1943.


January 23rd, 1957

The flying disc renamed the 'Frisbee'; Ultimate Frisbee Organization logo

American inventor Walter Frederick Morrison sells the rights to his flying disc to the Wham-O toy company, who later rename it the "Frisbee".

Wikipedia  Image: The flying disc renamed the "Frisbee" ● Frisbee: handstand catch by Claudio Cigna, Acrobaticfrisbee.


January 23rd, 1968

Vietnam War: Operation Swift; U.S. Marines engage the North Vietnamese in battle in the Que Son Valley Vietnam War: Boeing B-52 Stratofortress

Vietnam War:
1968 - North Korea seizes the USS Pueblo (AGER-2), claiming the ship had violated their territorial waters while spying.
1973 - United States President Richard Nixon announces that a peace accord has been reached in Vietnam.

Wikipedia  Photo: Vietnam_War; Side view of an HH-53 helicopter of the 40th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron as seen from the gunner's position on an A-1 of the 21st Specialist Operations Squadron. (USAF Photo by Ken Hackman), Boston Globe;
Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, credit Free Republic;
Vietnam War: The Big Picture / Boston Globe.


January 23rd, 2002

Anti-Terrorism Court of Pakistan hands down the death sentence to British born Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh and life terms to three others suspected of murdering Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl

Reporter Daniel Pearl is kidnapped in Karachi, Pakistan and subsequently murdered.

Wikipedia  Photo: Attack: Daniel Pearl was abducted from Karachi while researching a story on Islamist militancy - his body was found three months later. / Associated Press


January 23rd, 2003

Pioneer 10 becomes the first man-made object to leave the central Solar System when it passes beyond the orbit of Neptune (the furthest planet from the Sun at the time)

Final communication between Earth and Pioneer 10.

Pioneer 10 becomes the first man-made object to leave the central Solar System when it passes beyond the orbit of Neptune (the furthest planet from the Sun at the time), credit NASA