First Confidential

 


THIS DAY IN HISTORY - JANUARY 24th

Edith Wharton, Quote

“Habit is necessary; it is the habit of having habits, of turning a trail into a rut, that must be incessantly fought against if one is to remain alive.”

~ Edith Wharton

Wikiquote (Edith Wharton born Edith Newbold Jones, (January 24, 1862 – August 11, 1937) a Pulitzer Prize-winning American novelist, short story writer, and designer.)

This Day in History

January 24th, 1679

English Civil War: (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Royalists (Cavaliers)

English Civil War:
1679 - King Charles II of England dissolves the Cavalier Parliament.

Wikipedia  Painting: English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Royalists (Cavaliers);
John Milton publishes Areopagitica; Battle of Naseby, victory of the Parliamentarian New Model Army; Battle of Marston Moor, 1644; "Cromwell at Dunbar", by Andrew Carrick Gow; Oliver Cromwell; King Charles I, painted by Van Dyck; "And when did you last see your father?" by William Frederick Yeames.


January 24th, 1817

The very nature of Chile's topography made it one of the toughest parts of South America for the Spanish to conquer (Torres del Paine National Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional Torres del Paine) is a national park encompassing mountains, a glacier, a lake, and river-rich areas in southern Chilean Patagonia)

1817 - Crossing of the Andes: Action of Picheuta; Many soldiers of Juan Gregorio de las Heras are captured.

Wikipedia  Photo: The very nature of Chile's topography made it one of the toughest parts of South America for the Spanish to conquer (Torres del Paine National Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional Torres del Paine) is a national park encompassing mountains, a glacier, a lake, and river-rich areas in southern Chilean Patagonia); Lautaro; The Mapuche were the original inhabitants of central and southern Chile; Chilean and Argentinean troops going to the Battle of Chacabuco (February 12, 1817) led by José de San Martín.


January 24th, 1862

Bucharest: Palace of the Parliament (Palatul Parlamentului) ● Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy (Universitatea de Medicină şi Farmacie Carol Davila) ● Triumphal Arch (Arcul de Triumf) ● George Enescu Museum (Muzeul George Enescu) ● Victory Avenue, Bucharest (Calea Victoriei) ● Colţea Hospital (Spitalul Colţea) ● Lipscani ● National Arena (Arena Naţională) ● Romanian Athenaeum (Ateneul Român) ● Grozăveşti Bridge (Podul Grozăveşti) ● Basarab Overpass (Pasajul Basarab)

Bucharest is proclaimed capital of Romania.

Wikipedia  Photo: Bucharest; Palace of the Parliament (Palatul Parlamentului) ● Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy (Universitatea de Medicină şi Farmacie Carol Davila) ● Triumphal Arch (Arcul de Triumf) ● George Enescu Museum (Muzeul George Enescu) ● Victory Avenue, Bucharest (Calea Victoriei) ● Colţea Hospital (Spitalul Colţea) ● Lipscani ● National Arena (Arena Naţională) ● Romanian Athenaeum (Ateneul Român) ● Grozăveşti Bridge (Podul Grozăveşti) ● Basarab Overpass (Pasajul Basarab).


January 24th, 1900

The Second Boer War (Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Tweede Vryheidsoorlog or Tweede Boereoorlog) was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State

Second Boer War: Siege of Ladysmith; Battle of Spion Kop, Boers stop a British attempt to break the Siege of Ladysmith.

Wikipedia  Photo: Second Boer War; (Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Tweede Vryheidsoorlog or Tweede Boereoorlog) was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State.


January 24th, 1911

Shūsui Kōtoku and his partner Kanno Suga. (The High Treason Incident ultimately resulted in the execution by hanging of 12 people, and the imprisonment of a further 14)

Japanese anarchist Shūsui Kōtoku is hanged for treason in a case now considered a miscarriage of justice..

Wikipedia  Photo: Shūsui Kōtoku and his partner Kanno Suga. (The High Treason Incident ultimately resulted in the execution by hanging of 12 people, and the imprisonment of a further 14).


January 24th, 1939

Global Earthquake epicenters

Earthquake:
1939 - Chillán earthquake of 1939; The deadliest earthquake in Chilean history strikes Chillán.

Wikipedia  Image: Preliminary Determination of Epicenters / Aleppo Syria; Anchorage, Alaska - March 28, 1964 Prince William Sound USA earthquake and tsunami; 8.9 Mega Earthquake Strikes Japan; Tsunami Swirls Japan's Ibaraki Prefecture March 12 2011. credit NOAA / NGDC, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, USGS, National Geographics.


January 24th, 1942

World War II: Second firestorm raid on Germany, the Royal Air Force conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf; Battle of Leyte Gulf; The first kamikaze attack: A Japanese plane carrying a 200-kilogram (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off Leyte Island World War II: German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944) World War II: Eastern Front (World War II); was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland, and some other Allies which encompassed Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945

World War II:
1942 - The Allies bombard Bangkok, leading Thailand to declare war against the United States and United Kingdom.
1943 - Casablanca Conference; Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill conclude a conference in Casablanca.
Post World War II:
1946 - The United Nations General Assembly passes its first resolution to establish the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission.
1947 - Greek banker Dimitrios Maximos becomes Prime Minister of Greece.

Wikipedia  Photo: Bombing of Dresden in World War II; August Schreitmüller's sculpture 'Goodness' surveys Dresden after a firestorm started by Allied bombers in 1945. USS Bunker Hill was hit by kamikazes piloted by Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa and another airman on 11 May 1945. 389 personnel were killed or missing from a crew of 2,600; Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa, who flew his aircraft into the USS Bunker Hill during a Kamikaze mission on 11 May 1945; Kamikaze Missions - Lt Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank is trailing fuel vapor and/or smoke 25 November 1944.
German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944), credit German History in Documents and Images GHDI.

Eastern Front (World War II); Germans race towards Stalingrad. August 1942; Soviet children during a German air raid in the first days of the war, June 1941, by RIA Novosti archive; Soviet sniper Roza Shanina in 1944. About 400,000 Soviet women served in front-line duty units Caucasus Mountains, winter 1942/43; Finnish ski patrol: the invisible enemy of the Soviet Army with an unlimited supply of skis; Men of the German Engineers Corps cross a river which is swollen after the first autumn rains, to strengthen bridges linking the German positions on the central front in Russia. by Keystone / Getty Images. October 1942; Russian snipers fighting on the Leningrad front during a blizzard. Photo by Hulton Archive / Getty Images, 1943; German soldiers surrendering to the Russians in Stalingrad, the soldier holding the white flag of surrender is dressed in white so that there could be no doubt of his intentions, a Russian soldier is on the right of the photograph. by Keystone / Getty Images, January 1943.


January 24th, 1960

Africa satellite orthographic: Africa satellite orthographic; The Gold Coast (red) British possessions in Africa (pink) 1913 Buildings along the Mediterranean coast of Algiers, ● Martyrs Memorial, ● Notre Dame d'Afrique, ● Ketchaoua Mosque, ● Casbah, ● the Grand Post Office and ● the Ministry of Finance of Algeria

The Algerian War: Some units of European volunteers in Algiers stage an insurrection known as the "barricades week", during which they seize government buildings and clash with local police.

Wikipedia  Image: Africa satellite orthographic; Buildings along the Mediterranean coast of Algiers, ● Martyrs Memorial, ● Notre Dame d'Afrique, ● Ketchaoua Mosque, ● Casbah, ● the Grand Post Office and ● the Ministry of Finance of Algeria.


January 24th, 1978

The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (artist's impression), credit NASA / CP; Cosmos-954 debris

Soviet satellite Cosmos 954, with a nuclear reactor on board, burns up in Earth's atmosphere, scattering radioactive debris over Canada's Northwest Territories (only 1% is recovered).

Wikipedia  Image: The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (artist's impression), credit NASA / CP; Cosmos-954 debris.


January 24th, 1986

Voyager 2 spacecraft passes within 81,500 kilometres (50,600 mi) of Uranus

Voyager 2 passes within 81,500 kilometres (50,600 mi) of Uranus.

Wikipedia  Photo: Voyager 2 Launch, sending back tens of thousands of images. NASA


January 24th, 2003

September 11 attacks take place in the United States. Airplane hijackings result in the collapse of the World Trade Center in New York City, damage to The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, and the crashing of a passenger airliner near Shanksville, Pennsylvania United States Department of Homeland Security officially begins operation on January 24th, 2003.

2003 - United States Department of Homeland Security officially begins operation.

Wikipedia  Photo: September 11 Attacks: From top to bottom: the World Trade Center burning; Trinity Cathedral; Statue of Liberty; a section of the Pentagon collapses; 9/11 memorial service.


January 24th, 2009

In meteorology, a cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth (This is usually characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth)

Cyclone:
2009 - The storm Klaus makes landfall near Bordeaux, France. (It subsequently would cause 26 deaths as well as extensive disruptions to public transport and power supplies.)

Wikipedia  Image: In meteorology, a cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth (This is usually characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth) ● Emergency Management, Australian Government. ● Global tropical cyclone tracks. ● Emergency Information, Burdenkin Shire.


January 24th, 2011

Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking) is the unlawful seizure of an aircraft by an individual or a group (In most cases, the pilot is forced to fly according to the orders of the hijackers, Occasionally, however, the hijackers have flown the aircraft themselves)

Aircraft hijacking:
2011 - Domodedovo International Airport bombing: at least 35 died and 180 injured in a bombing at Moscow's Domodedovo airport.

Wikipedia  Photo: Hijacked Sudan passenger jet lands in Libya, August 27, 2008; Amsterdam false alarm revives airplane hijacking memories, Passengers leave a Vueling plane at a field near Amsterdam Airport after a hijack scare last week that led the Netherlands to scramble F-16 fighter jets, September 2, 2012 Reuters; Egypt Air flight 648 was hijacked in November 1985 by the terrorist Abu Nidal organisation, credit AP; Cockpit section of Pan Am 103 wreckage following a mid-air explosion, December 21, 1988; 747 Pan Am airliner that exploded and crashed over Lockerbie, Scotland, with 259 passengers on board in 1988; Debris lies in a deep gash through the town of Lockerbie, Scotland, caused by the crash of Pan Am flight 103, credit AP; Flight 175 hits the WTC South Tower. The picture was taken from a traffic helicopter. credit: WABC 7/ Salient Stills; Hijacked United Airlines Flight 175 from Boston crashes into the South Tower of the World Trade Center and explodes at 9:03 a.m. on September 11, 2001 in New York City, credit Spencer Platt / Getty Images.