First Street Confidential

 


THIS DAY IN HISTORY - JANUARY 28th

Colette, Quote

“I love my past. I love my present. I'm not ashamed of what I've had, and I'm not sad because I have it no longer.”

~ Colette

Wikiquote (Colette (January 28, 1873 – August 3, 1954) was a French writer, usually known simply by her pen-name “Colette”.)

This Day in History

January 28th, 98

Roman Empire Decline and Fall of Rome

Roman Empire:
98 - Trajan succeeded his adoptive father Nerva as Roman Emperor; under his rule the Roman Empire would reach its maximum extent.

Wikipedia  Image: Relief from a 3rd-century sarcophagus depicting a battle between Romans and Germanic warriors; the central figure is perhaps the emperor Hostilian / Depiction of the Menorah on the Arch of Titus in Rome.


January 28th, 1521

Diet of Worms 1521: was a diet (a formal deliberative assembly, specifically an Imperial Diet) that took place in Worms, Germany, and is most memorable for the Edict of Worms (Wormser Edikt), which addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation

Diet of Worms: begins, lasting until May 25.

Wikipedia  Painting: Diet of Worms 1521 ("Luther at the Diet of Worms"): was a diet (a formal deliberative assembly, specifically an Imperial Diet) that took place in Worms, Germany, and is most memorable for the Edict of Worms (Wormser Edikt), which addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation.


January 28th, 1547

Henry VIII; Coat of Arms and Seal of Henry VIII of England; Catherine of Aragon as a young widow, by court painter Michael Sittow, 1502; Anne Boleyn, Henry's second queen; a later copy of an original painted 1534; Jane Seymour<, Henry's third wife; Anne of Cleves, Henry's forth wife by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1539; Catherine Howard<, Henry's fifth wife, by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1540; Catherine Parr, Henry's sixth and last wife

Henry VIII of England dies. His nine year old son, Edward VI becomes King, and the first Protestant ruler of England.

Wikipedia  Painting: Henry VIII Coat of Arms and Seal of Henry VIII of England; Catherine of Aragon as a young widow, by court painter Michael Sittow, 1502; Anne Boleyn, Henry's second queen; a later copy of an original painted 1534; Jane Seymour, Henry's third wife; Anne of Cleves, Henry's forth wife by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1539; Catherine Howard, Henry's fifth wife, by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1540; Catherine Parr, Henry's sixth and last wife.


January 28th, 1573

Warsaw Confederation (January 28, 1573), an important development in the history of Poland and Lithuania that extended religious tolerance to nobility and free persons within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is considered the formal beginning of religious freedom in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and in fact is the first such document in Europe

Articles of the Warsaw Confederation are signed, sanctioning freedom of religion in Poland.

Wikipedia  Painting: Warsaw Confederation (January 28, 1573); an important development in the history of Poland and Lithuania that extended religious tolerance to nobility and free persons within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is considered the formal beginning of religious freedom in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and in fact is the first such document in Europe.


January 28th, 1724

Saint Petersburg, Russia: a city and a federal subject (a federal city) of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea

Saint Petersburg, Russia is renamed Leningrad.

Wikipedia  Image: Saint Petersburg: Panorama from Palace Bridge ● Pushkin House is established in Saint Petersburg to preserve the cultural heritage (Institute of Russian Literature, as seen from across the Neva) ● Saint Petersburg, Russia. © Digital Vision / Getty Images ● Saint Isaac's Cathedral ● Winter Palace is one of the most splendid buildings in Saint Petersburg.


January 28th, 1813

Pride and Prejudice: Jane Austen, Portrait on canvas dating 1910, depicting a young girl, believed to be Jane Austen

Pride and Prejudice is first published in the United Kingdom.

Wikipedia  Image: Pride and Prejudice: Jane Austen, Portrait on canvas dating 1910, depicting a young girl, believed to be Jane Austen.


January 28th, 1887

Prussian infantry at the battle of Spicheren; Jeanniot's La ligne de feu (1886), depicting the Battle of Mars-La-Tour; Werner's depiction of the capitulation of Sedan; Neuville's 'Last bullets' depicting the Battle of Bazeilles

snowstorm
1887 - At Fort Keogh, Montana, the world's largest snowflakes are reported, 15 inches (38 cm) wide and 8 inches (20 cm) thick.
1977 - The first day of the Great Lakes Blizzard of 1977, which severely affects and cripples much of Upstate New York, Buffalo, NY, Syracuse, NY, Watertown, NY and surrounding areas are most affected, each area accumulating close to 10 feet (3.0 m) of snow on this one day.

Wikipedia  Image: Snowstorm; Hoar frost that grows on the snow surface due to water vapor moving up through the snow on cold, clear nights.


January 28th, 1896

Speed Limit sign, 2 mph (3.2 km/h)

Walter Arnold of East Peckham, Kent became the first person to be convicted of speeding - He was fined 1 shilling, plus costs, for speeding at 8 mph (13 km/h), thus exceeding the contemporary speed limit of 2 mph (3.2 km/h).

Wikipedia  Image: Speed Limit sign, 2 mph (3.2 km/h).


January 28th, 1909

Spanish-American War: Satellite image Cuba, credit: Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA / GSFC; A Catalan satirical drawing published in La Campana de Gràcia (1896), criticizing U.S. behavior regarding Cuba; W. A. Rogers. 'The Battle of Desmayo - The Cuban Balaklava' In: Harper's Pictorial History of the War with Spain. Vol. 1. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1899. NYPL, United States History, Local History and Genealogy Division

Spanish–American War:
1909 - United States troops leave Cuba with the exception of Guantanamo Bay Naval Base.

Wikipedi  Image: Satellite image Cuba, credit: Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA / GSFC; A Catalan satirical drawing published in La Campana de Gràcia (1896), criticizing U.S. behavior regarding Cuba; W. A. Rogers. "The Battle of Desmayo - The Cuban Balaklava" In: Harper's Pictorial History of the War with Spain. Vol. 1. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1899. NYPL, United States History, Local History and Genealogy Division.


January 28th, 1918

World War I: Collage

Post World War I:
1918 - Finnish Civil War; Rebels seized control of the capital, Helsinki, and members of the Senate of Finland go underground.

Wikipedia  Photo: Trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark IV Tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III biplanes. National Archives and Records Administration.


January 28th, 1932

World War II: Second firestorm raid on Germany, the Royal Air Force conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf; Battle of Leyte Gulf; The first kamikaze attack: A Japanese plane carrying a 200-kilogram (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off Leyte Island World War II: German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944) World War II: Eastern Front (World War II); was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland, and some other Allies which encompassed Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945

Pre World War II:
1932 - Japanese forces attack Shanghai.
1933 - The name Pakistan is coined by Choudhary Rehmat Ali and is accepted by the Indian Muslims who then thereby adopted it further for the Pakistan Movement seeking independence.
World War II:
1941 - French-Thai War; Final air battle of the conflict - Japanese-mediated armistice goes into effect later in the day.
1945 - Supplies begin to reach the Republic of China over the newly reopened Burma Road.

Wikipedia  Photo: Bombing of Dresden in World War II; August Schreitmüller's sculpture 'Goodness' surveys Dresden after a firestorm started by Allied bombers in 1945. USS Bunker Hill was hit by kamikazes piloted by Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa and another airman on 11 May 1945. 389 personnel were killed or missing from a crew of 2,600; Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa, who flew his aircraft into the USS Bunker Hill during a Kamikaze mission on 11 May 1945; Kamikaze Missions - Lt Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank is trailing fuel vapor and/or smoke 25 November 1944.
German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944), credit German History in Documents and Images GHDI.

Eastern Front (World War II); Germans race towards Stalingrad. August 1942; Soviet children during a German air raid in the first days of the war, June 1941, by RIA Novosti archive; Soviet sniper Roza Shanina in 1944. About 400,000 Soviet women served in front-line duty units Caucasus Mountains, winter 1942/43; Finnish ski patrol: the invisible enemy of the Soviet Army with an unlimited supply of skis; Men of the German Engineers Corps cross a river which is swollen after the first autumn rains, to strengthen bridges linking the German positions on the central front in Russia. by Keystone / Getty Images. October 1942; Russian snipers fighting on the Leningrad front during a blizzard. Photo by Hulton Archive / Getty Images, 1943; German soldiers surrendering to the Russians in Stalingrad, the soldier holding the white flag of surrender is dressed in white so that there could be no doubt of his intentions, a Russian soldier is on the right of the photograph. by Keystone / Getty Images, January 1943.


January 28th, 1958

Lego (trademarked in capitals as LEGO) is a popular line of construction toys, consisting of colorful interlocking plastic bricks and an accompanying array of gears, minifigures and various other parts

Lego company patents the design of its Lego bricks, still compatible with bricks produced today.

Wikipedia  Photo: Lego (trademarked in capitals as LEGO) is a popular line of construction toys, consisting of colorful interlocking plastic bricks and an accompanying array of gears, minifigures and various other parts


January 28th, 1964

Cold War: often dated from 1947–1991, was a sustained state of political and military tension between the powers of the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, and the communist world, led by the Soviet Union, its satellite states and allies

Cold War:
1964 - An unarmed United States Air Force (USAF) T-39 Sabreliner on a training mission is shot down over Erfurt East Germany by a Soviet MiG-19.
1961 - Soviet submarine S-80 sinks with all hands lost.

Wikipedia  Photo: Lockheed C-130 Hercules; RAF Menwith Hill, a large site in the United Kingdom, part of ECHELON and the UKUSA Agreement; New Zealand nuclear test, British nuclear tests near the Malden and Christmas Islands in the mid-Pacific in 1957 and 1958; Nevada nuclear tests, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Federal Facilities.


January 28th, 1981

Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981

Ronald Reagan lifts remaining domestic petroleum price and allocation controls in the United States helping to end the 1979 energy crisis and begin the 1980s oil glut.

Wikipedia  Photo: Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.


January 28th, 1986

The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster occurred on January 28, 1986, when Space Shuttle Challenger (mission STS-51-L) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, leading to the deaths of its seven crew members (The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of central Florida at 11:38 EST (16:38 UTC))

Space Shuttle program, STS-51-L Mission: Space Shuttle Challenger breaks apart after liftoff killing all seven astronauts on board.

Wikipedia  Photo: STS-51-L crew: (front row) Michael J. Smith, Dick Scobee, Ronald McNair; (back row) Ellison Onizuka, Christa McAuliffe, Gregory Jarvis, Judith Resnik ● Space Shuttle Challenger lift off, Associated Press ● Space Shuttle Challenger's smoke plume after its in-flight breakup, resulting in its crash and the deaths of all seven crew members


January 28th, 1988

The Surpreme Court of Canada

The Surpreme Court of Canada struck down all abortion laws which mean abortions where allowed in Canada in all 9 months of pregnancy.

Wikipedia  Photo: The Surpreme Court of Canada.


January 28th, 2002

Airliners Crash: ● Pan AM 747 ● U.S. Airways flight 1549 also known as the 'Miracle on the Hudson' navigates an exit ramp near Burlington, New Jersey, June 5, 2011 ● Passengers stand on the wings of a U.S. Airways plane as a ferry pulls up to it after it landed in the Hudson River in New York, Reuters ● US Airways plane crashes into New York Hudson River, Photo: AP

Aviation accidents and incidents:
2002 - TAME Flight 120, a Boeing 727-100 crashes in the Andes mountains in southern Colombia killing 92.

Wikipedia  Photo: ● Pan AM 747 ● U.S. Airways flight 1549 also known as the "Miracle on the Hudson" navigates an exit ramp near Burlington, New Jersey, June 5, 2011 ● Passengers stand on the wings of a U.S. Airways plane as a ferry pulls up to it after it landed in the Hudson River in New York, Reuters ● US Airways plane crashes into New York Hudson River, Photo: AP


January 28th, 2011

Egyptian revolution: Arab Spring; Millions of anti-government protesters demonstrate in Liberation Square, Cairo, Egypt

Arab Spring: Egyptian revolution; Hundreds of thousands of protesters filled up the Egyptian's streets in demonstrations referred to as "Friday of Anger" against the Hosni Mubarak regime.

Wikipedia  Photo: Millions of anti-government protesters demonstrate in Liberation Square, Cairo, Egypt.