First Confidential

 


THIS DAY IN HISTORY - MARCH 22nd

Anne Hutchinson, Quote

“As I understand it, laws, commands, rules and edicts are for those who have not the light which makes plain the pathway”

~ Anne Hutchinson (banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, March 22, 1638)

Wikiquote (Anne Hutchinson (born Anne Marbury (1591 – 1643), was a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. Her strong religious convictions were at odds with the established Puritan clergy in the Boston area, and her popularity and charisma helped create a theological schism that threatened to destroy the Puritans' religious experiment in New England. She was eventually tried and convicted, then banished from the colony with many of her supporters.)

This Day in History

March 22nd, 238

Roman Empire Decline and Fall of Rome

Roman Empire:
238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman Emperors.

Wikipedia  Image: Relief from a 3rd-century sarcophagus depicting a battle between Romans and Germanic warriors; the central figure is perhaps the emperor Hostilian / Depiction of the Menorah on the Arch of Titus in Rome.


March 22nd, 1621

Mayflower Collage: departs from Southampton, England on its travel to North America

Plymouth Colony:
1621 - The Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony sign a peace treaty with Massasoit of the Wampanoags
1622 - Jamestown massacre Indians kill 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Virginia, a third of the colony's population.
1630 - The Massachusetts Bay Colony outlaws the possession of cards, dice, and gaming tables.
1638 - Anne Hutchinson is expelled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for religious dissent.

Wikipedia  Painting: "Mayflower", The Granger Collection, New York 1905; Pilgrims landing on Cape Cod in November of 1620; The Pilgrims on the Speedwell; Mayflower arrived inside the tip of Cape Cod fishhook, November 1620 (satellite image, 1997); Landing of the Pilgrims by Michele Felice Cornè, circa 1805. Displayed in the White House.


March 22nd, 1739

Nadir Shah occupies Delhi in India and sacks the city, stealing the jewels of the Peacock Throne

Nader Shah occupies Delhi in India and sacks the city, stealing the jewels of the Peacock Throne, Sweden.

Wikipedia  Painting: Nader Shah's portrait from the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum. ● "Battle of Karnal", by Adel Adili.


March 22nd, 1765

American Revolutionary War Collage American Revolutionary War, Grand Union - Stars and Stripes Flag

American Revolutionary War:
1765 - The British Parliament passes the Stamp Act that introduces a tax to be levied directly on its American colonies. (The Americans rejected that as unconstitutional--crying "No Taxation without Representation" - and it was a major grievance that led to the American Revolution.)

Wikipedia  Paintings: Washington Crossing the Delaware, by Emanuel Leutz; Battle of the Chesapeake, French (left) and British (right) lines; Battle of Bunker Hill, The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill by John Trumbull; The Defeat of the Floating Batteries at Gibraltar, September 13, 1782, by John Singleton Copley; Washington and the Comte de Rochambeau at Yorktown, 1781; "The surrender at Saratoga" shows General Daniel Morgan in front of a French de Vallière 4-pounder; Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown by (John Trumbull, 1797).
Grand Union - Stars and Stripes Flag


March 22nd, 1829

Greece satellite image, credit NASA; Acrocorinth, looking north towards the Gulf of Corinth; Temple of Apollo Ancient Corinth; Early morning lightning illuminates the sky over the 2,500-year-old Ancient Parthenon temple, at the Acropolis hill during a heavy rainfall in Athens

The three protecting powers (United Kingdom, France and Russia) establish the borders of Greece.

Wikipedia  Image: Greece satellite image, credit NASA; Acrocorinth, looking north towards the Gulf of Corinth; The Acrocorinth in the background, behind the Temple of Apollo; Temple of Apollo Ancient Corinth; Early morning lightning illuminates the sky over the 2,500-year-old Ancient Parthenon temple, at the Acropolis hill during a heavy rainfall in Athens.


March 22nd, 1871

Lincoln Memorial: an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln - located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument American Civil War: Battle of Antietam; Stone Bridge at Antietam Battlefield - Sharpsburg, Maryland American Civil War, Battle of Mobile Bay: at Mobile Bay near Mobile, Alabama, Admiral David Farragut leads a Union flotilla through Confederate defenses and seals one of the last major Southern ports

Post (Reconstruction Era) American Civil War:
1871 - North Carolina William Woods Holden becomes the first governor of a U.S. state to be removed from office by impeachment.

Wikipedia  Image: ● Lincoln Memorial; an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln - located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument.
● The northern army led by George McClellan and the southern army led by Robert E. Lee met at Antietam Creek, Maryland in September, 1862. It was a bloody battle where 13,000 Confederates and 12,000 Union troops died in just one day. McClellan had hesitated to attack before the battle thus letting the southern troops regroup. Also, he had saved reserves and refused to use them at the end of the battle thinking that Lee was holding reserves for a counterattack, even though those reserves didn't exist. The Union victory stopped Lee's northward advance and was a turning point in the war.
Battle of Antietam / Stone Bridge at Antietam Battlefield - Sharpsburg, Maryland
Battle of Mobile Bay (1890) by Xanthus Russell Smith.
Although photography was still in its infancy, war correspondents produced thousands of images, bringing the harsh realities of the frontlines to those on the home front in a new and visceral way. The Atlantic.


March 22nd, 1894

National Hockey League is formed, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, and Toronto Arenas as its first teams

1894 - The first playoff game for the Stanley Cup starts.
1923 - The first radio broadcast of ice hockey is made by Foster Hewitt.
1989 - Clint Malarchuk of the Buffalo Sabres suffers a near-fatal injury when another player accidentally slits his throat.

Wikipedia  Photo: National Hockey League Logos; The Pittsburgh Penguins' Sidney Crosby hoists the Stanley Cup after the Penguins beat the Detroit Red Wings 2-1 to win Game 7 of the NHL hockey Stanley Cup Finals in Detroit June 12. (AP Photo: Gunn, The Canadian PressFrank).


March 22nd, 1906

The first rugby match under floodlights takes place in Salford, between Broughton and Swinton

First Anglo-French rugby union match at Parc des Princes in Paris.

Wikipedia  Photo: The Stade de France Stadium during World Cup Group A match between South Africa and England in 2007. Photograph: Franck FIFE / AFP.


March 22nd, 1916

China: the world's most populous country, covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres, second-largest country by land area (China from NASA Wordwind Satellite; Great Wall China, credit National Geographic; LongJi Terrace, credit National Geographic; Great Bear Rainforest, credit Paul Nicklen, National Geographic; Platoons of clay soldiers were buried with China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di, (required a labor force of 700,000 to build), credit O. Louis Mazzatenta, National Geographic)

China:
1916 - The last Emperor of China, Yuan Shikai, abdicates the throne and the Republic of China is restored.

Wikipedia  Photo: China from NASA Wordwind Satellite; © Great Wall of China, credit National Geographic; LongJi Terrace, credit National Geographic; Great Bear Rainforest, credit Paul Nicklen, National Geographic; Platoons of clay soldiers were buried with China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di, (required a labor force of 700,000 to build), credit O. Louis Mazzatenta, National Geographic.


March 22nd, 1920

World War I: Collage

Post World War I:
1920 - Shushi Massacres; Azeri and Turkish army soldiers with participation of Kurdish gangs attacked the Armenian inhabitants of Shushi (Nagorno Karabakh).

Wikipedia  Photo: Trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark IV Tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III biplanes. National Archives and Records Administration.


March 22nd, 1939

World War II: Second firestorm raid on Germany, the Royal Air Force conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf; Battle of Leyte Gulf; The first kamikaze attack: A Japanese plane carrying a 200-kilogram (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off Leyte Island World War II: German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944) World War II: Eastern Front (World War II); was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland, and some other Allies which encompassed Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945

World War II:
1939 - Germany takes Memel (Klaipėda Region) from Lithuania.
1942 - Battle of Sirte; In the Mediterranean Sea, the Royal Navy confronts Italy's Regia Marina.
1945 - The Arab League is founded when a charter is adopted in Cairo, Egypt.
Post World War I:
1954 - Closed since 1939, the London bullion market reopens.

Wikipedia  Photo: Bombing of Dresden in World War II; August Schreitmüller's sculpture 'Goodness' surveys Dresden after a firestorm started by Allied bombers in 1945. USS Bunker Hill was hit by kamikazes piloted by Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa and another airman on 11 May 1945. 389 personnel were killed or missing from a crew of 2,600; Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa, who flew his aircraft into the USS Bunker Hill during a Kamikaze mission on 11 May 1945; Kamikaze Missions - Lt Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank is trailing fuel vapor and/or smoke 25 November 1944.
German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944), credit German History in Documents and Images GHDI.

Eastern Front (World War II); Germans race towards Stalingrad. August 1942; Soviet children during a German air raid in the first days of the war, June 1941, by RIA Novosti archive; Soviet sniper Roza Shanina in 1944. About 400,000 Soviet women served in front-line duty units Caucasus Mountains, winter 1942/43; Finnish ski patrol: the invisible enemy of the Soviet Army with an unlimited supply of skis; Men of the German Engineers Corps cross a river which is swollen after the first autumn rains, to strengthen bridges linking the German positions on the central front in Russia. by Keystone / Getty Images. October 1942; Russian snipers fighting on the Leningrad front during a blizzard. Photo by Hulton Archive / Getty Images, 1943; German soldiers surrendering to the Russians in Stalingrad, the soldier holding the white flag of surrender is dressed in white so that there could be no doubt of his intentions, a Russian soldier is on the right of the photograph. by Keystone / Getty Images, January 1943.


March 22nd, 1943

World War II, The Holocaust

World War II: Holocaust;
1943 - The entire population of Khatyn in Belarus is burnt alive by German occupation forces.

Wikipedia  Photo: World War II, The Holocaust. Sources: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum USHMM, History 1900s, Internet Masters of Education Technology IMET, Techno Friends, Veterans Today, Concern.


March 22nd, 1992

Airliners Crash: ● Pan AM 747 ● U.S. Airways flight 1549 also known as the 'Miracle on the Hudson' navigates an exit ramp near Burlington, New Jersey, June 5, 2011 ● Passengers stand on the wings of a U.S. Airways plane as a ferry pulls up to it after it landed in the Hudson River in New York, Reuters ● US Airways plane crashes into New York Hudson River, Photo: AP

Aviation accidents and incidents:
1992 - USAir Flight 405; crashes shortly after liftoff from New York City's LaGuardia Airport, leading to a number of studies into the effect that ice has on aircraft.

Wikipedia  Photo: ● Pan AM 747 ● U.S. Airways flight 1549 also known as the "Miracle on the Hudson" navigates an exit ramp near Burlington, New Jersey, June 5, 2011 ● Passengers stand on the wings of a U.S. Airways plane as a ferry pulls up to it after it landed in the Hudson River in New York, Reuters ● US Airways plane crashes into New York Hudson River, Photo: AP


March 22nd, 1993

Intel Corporation is founded in Santa Clara, California

Intel Corporation ships the first Pentium chips (80586), featuring a 60 MHz clock speed, 100+ MIPS (Instructions per second), and a 64 bit data path.

Wikipedia  Image: Intel, the world leader in silicon innovation, develops technologies, products, and initiatives


March 22nd, 1995

Cosmonaut Valeriy Polyakov returns to earth after setting a record of 438 days in space

Cosmonaut Valeriy Polyakov returns to earth after setting a record of 438 days in space.

Wikipedia  Photo: Russian cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov toasts with a cup of hot tea as he sits in an armchair after being taken out of the TM-20 landing unit which landed in northeast Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on March 22, 1995. Polyakov broke the endurance record of one year in space when he spent his 366th day in orbit on January 9. Polyakov practiced an intense exercise regimen, allowing him to walk immediately after landing, to the nearby armchair ● credit Reuters / Washington Post.


March 22nd, 1997

Tara Lipinski takes Figure Skating Gold, Nagano 1998 #9679; Tara Lipinski inspired a rule about age requirements for figure skating competitions (she practices her camel spin before the U.S. Figure Skating Championships in Philadelphia). Tom Mihalek / AFP / Getty Images

American figure skater Tara Lipinski, age 14 years and 10 months, becomes the youngest champion women's World Figure Skating Champion.

Wikipedia  Photo: Tara Lipinski takes Figure Skating Gold, Nagano 1998 #9679; Tara Lipinski inspired a rule about age requirements for figure skating competitions (she practices her camel spin before the U.S. Figure Skating Championships in Philadelphia). Tom Mihalek / AFP / Getty Images.


March 22nd, 2017

List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

Modern conflicts in the Middle East:
2017 - Westminster attack A terrorist attack in London near the United Kingdom Houses of Parliament leaves four people dead and at least 20 injured.
2016 - Brussels bombings Three suicide bombers kill 32 people and injure 316 in the 2016 Brussels bombings at the Brussels Airport and at the Maelbeek/Maalbeek metro station.
2013 - Thailand refugee camp fire; At least 37 people are killed and 200 are injured after a fire destroys a camp containing Burmese refugees near Ban Mae, Thailand.
2006 - Three Christian Peacemaker Team hostages are freed by British forces in Baghdad after 118 days of captivity and the murder of their colleague, American Tom Fox.
2004 - Ahmed Yassin, co-founder and leader of the Palestinian Sunni Islamist group Hamas, two bodyguards, and nine civilian bystanders are killed in the Gaza Strip when hit by Israeli Air Force AH-64 Apache fired Hellfire missiles.

Wikipedia  Photo: Middle East satellite image, NASA. ● Camels are seen early morning on a beach in the Marina area of Dubai October 16, 2008. (Steve Crisp, Reuters) ● A portrait of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad burns during clashes between rebels and Syrian troops in Selehattin, near Aleppo, on July 23, 2012. (Bulent Kilic, AFP / GettyImages) ● Egyptians gather in their thousands in Tahrir Square to mark the one year anniversary of the revolution on Jan. 25, 2012 in Cairo Egypt. Tens of thousands have gathered in the square on the first anniversary of the Arab uprising which toppled President Hosni Mubarak. (Jeff J Mitchell, Getty Images) ● Black smoke rises above the Tehran skyline as supporters of Mir Hossein Mousavi burn tires and other material in the streets as they fight running battles with police to protest the declared results of the Iranian presidential election in Tehran, Iran, Saturday, June 13, 2009. (Ben Curtis, AP) ● The Iron Dome defense system fires to interecpt incoming missiles from Gaza in the port town of Ashdod, Thursday, Nov. 15, 2012. (Tsafrir Abayov, AP)