First Confidential

 


THIS DAY IN HISTORY - MARCH 29th

Plutarch, Quote

“To make no mistake is not in the power of man, but from their errors and mistakes the wise and good learn wisdom for the future.”

~ Plutarch

Wikiquote (Plutarch (Greek: Πλούταρχος) then named, on his becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος), (c. 46 – 120 AD), a Greek historian, biographer, and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.)

This Day in History

March 29th, 1632

Canada satellite image; The creation of Upper and Lower Canada (1791)

1632 - Treaty of Saint-Germain: is signed returning Quebec to French control after the English had seized it in 1629.
1867 - Queen Victoria gives Royal Assent to the British North America Act which establishes the Dominion of Canada on July 1.
1982 - The Canada Act 1982 (U.K.) receives the Royal Assent from Queen Elizabeth II, setting the stage for the Queen of Canada to proclaim the Constitution Act, 1982.

Wikipedia  Canada satellite image, @copy; Geology.com ● The creation of Upper and Lower Canada (1791)


March 29th, 1638

Swedish colonists establish the first European settlement in Delaware, naming it New Sweden on March 29th, 1638

Swedish colonists establish the first European settlement in Delaware, naming it New Sweden.

Wikipedia  Landing of the Swedes in 1638 ● Map of Colonial New Sweden in America (1638 - 1685)


March 29th, 1683

Yaoya Oshichi, 15-year old Japanese girl, burnt at the stake for an act or arson committed due to unrequited love

Yaoya Oshichi, 15-year old Japanese girl, burnt at the stake for an act or arson committed due to unrequited love.

Wikipedia  Painting: Yaoya Oshichi representation.


March 29th, 1806

Construction is authorized of the Great National Pike, better known as the Cumberland Road, becoming the first United States federal highway, on March 29th, 1806

Construction is authorized of the Great National Pike, better known as the Cumberland Road, becoming the first United States federal highway.

Wikipedia  Photo: Cumberland Road; 1840, credit fhwa.gov ● Cumberland Road 55, credit Rebekah Jacob Gallery.


March 29th, 1865

Lincoln Memorial: an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln - located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument American Civil War: Battle of Antietam; Stone Bridge at Antietam Battlefield - Sharpsburg, Maryland American Civil War: American Civil War: First Battle Between Ironclads; CSS Virginia/Merrimac (left) vs. USS Monitor, in 1862 at the Battle of Hampton Roads

American Civil War:
1865 - Appomattox Campaign; Union forces under Major General Philip Sheridan move to flank Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee.

Wikipedia  Image: ● Lincoln Memorial; an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln - located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument.
● The northern army led by George McClellan and the southern army led by Robert E. Lee met at Antietam Creek, Maryland in September, 1862. It was a bloody battle where 13,000 Confederates and 12,000 Union troops died in just one day. McClellan had hesitated to attack before the battle thus letting the southern troops regroup. Also, he had saved reserves and refused to use them at the end of the battle thinking that Lee was holding reserves for a counterattack, even though those reserves didn't exist. The Union victory stopped Lee's northward advance and was a turning point in the war.
Battle of Antietam / Stone Bridge at Antietam Battlefield - Sharpsburg, Maryland
● First Battle Between Ironclads: CSS Virginia/Merrimac (left) vs. USS Monitor, in 1862 at the Battle of Hampton Roads.
Although photography was still in its infancy, war correspondents produced thousands of images, bringing the harsh realities of the frontlines to those on the home front in a new and visceral way. The Atlantic.


March 29th, 1871

The Royal Albert Hall is opened by Queen Victoria on March 27th, 1871

Royal Albert Hall is opened by Queen Victoria.

Wikipedia  Photo: Royal Albert Hall Reflections, credit Kayode Okeyode ● The Royal Albert Hall, Kensington, credit Andy 1st, Flickr.


March 29th, 1879

David Livingstone becomes the first European to see the Victoria Falls in what is now present-day Zambia-Zimbabwe A n'anga (or faith healer) of the majority (70%) Shona people, holding a kudu horn trumpet; Matabele and Zulu warriors, traditions continue to this day in ceremonies for special events

Anglo-Zulu War:
1879 - Battle of Kambula; British orces defeat 20,000 Zulus.

Wikipedia  Photo: Zambia Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe;
A n'anga (or faith healer) of the majority (70%) Shona people, holding a kudu horn trumpet; Matabele and Zulu warriors, traditions continue to this day in ceremonies for special events.


March 29th, 1936

World War II: Second firestorm raid on Germany, the Royal Air Force conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf; Battle of Leyte Gulf; The first kamikaze attack: A Japanese plane carrying a 200-kilogram (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off Leyte Island World War II: German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944) World War II: Eastern Front (World War II); was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland, and some other Allies which encompassed Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945

World War II:
1936 - In Germany, Adolf Hitler receives 99% of the votes in a referendum to ratify Germany's illegal reoccupation of the Rhineland, receiving 44.5 million votes out of 45.5 million registered voters.
1941 - The North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement goes into effect at 03:00 local time.
1941 - Battle of Cape Matapan; Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy forces defeat those of the Italian Regia Marina off the Peloponnesian coast of Greece.
1942 - Bombing of Lübeck; first major success for the RAF Bomber Command against Germany and a German city.
1945 - Last day of V-1 flying bomb attacks on England.
1945 - Heiligenbeil Pocket; The German 4th Army (Wehrmacht) is almost destroyed by the Soviet Red Army.

Wikipedia  Photo: Bombing of Dresden in World War II; August Schreitmüller's sculpture 'Goodness' surveys Dresden after a firestorm started by Allied bombers in 1945. USS Bunker Hill was hit by kamikazes piloted by Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa and another airman on 11 May 1945. 389 personnel were killed or missing from a crew of 2,600; Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa, who flew his aircraft into the USS Bunker Hill during a Kamikaze mission on 11 May 1945; Kamikaze Missions - Lt Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank is trailing fuel vapor and/or smoke 25 November 1944.
German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944), credit German History in Documents and Images GHDI.

Eastern Front (World War II); Germans race towards Stalingrad. August 1942; Soviet children during a German air raid in the first days of the war, June 1941, by RIA Novosti archive; Soviet sniper Roza Shanina in 1944. About 400,000 Soviet women served in front-line duty units Caucasus Mountains, winter 1942/43; Finnish ski patrol: the invisible enemy of the Soviet Army with an unlimited supply of skis; Men of the German Engineers Corps cross a river which is swollen after the first autumn rains, to strengthen bridges linking the German positions on the central front in Russia. by Keystone / Getty Images. October 1942; Russian snipers fighting on the Leningrad front during a blizzard. Photo by Hulton Archive / Getty Images, 1943; German soldiers surrendering to the Russians in Stalingrad, the soldier holding the white flag of surrender is dressed in white so that there could be no doubt of his intentions, a Russian soldier is on the right of the photograph. by Keystone / Getty Images, January 1943.


March 29th, 1951

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg: Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 25, 1915 – June 19, 1953) and Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) were American communists who were convicted and executed on June 19, 1953, for conspiracy to commit espionage during a time of war (Their charges were related to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union)

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage.

Wikipedia  Picture: Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 25, 1915 – June 19, 1953) and Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) were American communists who were convicted and executed on June 19, 1953, for conspiracy to commit espionage during a time of war. (Their charges were related to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.)


March 29th, 1971

Vietnam War: Operation Swift; U.S. Marines engage the North Vietnamese in battle in the Que Son Valley Vietnam War: Boeing B-52 Stratofortress

Vietnam War:
1971 - My Lai massacre; Lieutenant William Calley is convicted of premeditated murder and sentenced to life in prison.
1973 - The last United States combat soldiers leave South Vietnam.
1973 - Operation Barrel Roll; a covert U.S. bombing campaign in Laos to stop communist infiltration of South Vietnam ends.

Wikipedia  Photo: Vietnam_War; Side view of an HH-53 helicopter of the 40th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron as seen from the gunner's position on an A-1 of the 21st Specialist Operations Squadron. (USAF Photo by Ken Hackman), Boston Globe;
Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, credit Free Republic;
Vietnam War: The Big Picture / Boston Globe.


March 29th, 1974

Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 10 toward Mercury - on March 29, 1974, it becomes the first space probe to reach that planet

Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 10 becomes the first space probe to fly by Mercury. (It was launched on November 3rd, 1973.)

Wikipedia  Image: Mariner 10 - Mercury, NASA.


March 29th, 1974

China: the world's most populous country, covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres, second-largest country by land area (China from NASA Wordwind Satellite; Great Wall China, credit National Geographic; LongJi Terrace, credit National Geographic; Great Bear Rainforest, credit Paul Nicklen, National Geographic; Platoons of clay soldiers were buried with China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di, (required a labor force of 700,000 to build), credit O. Louis Mazzatenta, National Geographic)

China:
1974 - Local farmers in Lintong District, Xi'an Shaanxi province, China, discover the Terracotta Army that was buried with Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.

Wikipedia  Photo: China from NASA Wordwind Satellite; © Great Wall of China, credit National Geographic; LongJi Terrace, credit National Geographic; Great Bear Rainforest, credit Paul Nicklen, National Geographic; Platoons of clay soldiers were buried with China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di, (required a labor force of 700,000 to build), credit O. Louis Mazzatenta, National Geographic.


March 29th, 1999

The New York Stock Exchange floor, credit Associated Press; and fisheye view, credit © Geoff Sills, © Eric L Bowers

The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the 10,000 mark (10,006.78) for the first time, during the height of the Internet boom.

Wikipedia  Photo: The New York Stock Exchange floor, credit Associated Press; and fisheye view, credit © Geoff Sills, © Eric L Bowers.


March 29th, 1999

Global Earthquake epicenters

Earthquake:
1999 - Chamoli earthquake; A magnitude 6.8 earthquake strikes the Chamoli district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, killing 103.

Wikipedia  Image: Preliminary Determination of Epicenters / Aleppo Syria; Anchorage, Alaska - March 28, 1964 Prince William Sound USA earthquake and tsunami; 8.9 Mega Earthquake Strikes Japan; Tsunami Swirls Japan's Ibaraki Prefecture March 12 2011. credit NOAA / NGDC, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, USGS, National Geographics.


March 29th, 2010

List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

Modern conflicts in the Middle East:
2010 - Moscow Metro bombings; Two female suicide bombers hit the Moscow Metro system at the peak of the morning rush hour, killing 40.
2002 - In reaction to the Passover Massacre two days prior, Israel launches Operation Defensive Shield against Palestinian militants, its largest military operation in the West Bank since the 1967 Six-Day War.

Wikipedia  Photo: Middle East satellite image, NASA. ● Camels are seen early morning on a beach in the Marina area of Dubai October 16, 2008. (Steve Crisp, Reuters) ● A portrait of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad burns during clashes between rebels and Syrian troops in Selehattin, near Aleppo, on July 23, 2012. (Bulent Kilic, AFP / GettyImages) ● Egyptians gather in their thousands in Tahrir Square to mark the one year anniversary of the revolution on Jan. 25, 2012 in Cairo Egypt. Tens of thousands have gathered in the square on the first anniversary of the Arab uprising which toppled President Hosni Mubarak. (Jeff J Mitchell, Getty Images) ● Black smoke rises above the Tehran skyline as supporters of Mir Hossein Mousavi burn tires and other material in the streets as they fight running battles with police to protest the declared results of the Iranian presidential election in Tehran, Iran, Saturday, June 13, 2009. (Ben Curtis, AP) ● The Iron Dome defense system fires to interecpt incoming missiles from Gaza in the port town of Ashdod, Thursday, Nov. 15, 2012. (Tsafrir Abayov, AP)


March 29th, 2013

At least 36 people are killed when a 16-floor building collapses in the commercial capital Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Dar es Salaam building collapse: At least 36 people are killed when a 16-floor building collapses in the commercial capital Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Wikipedia  Photo: Dar es Salaam building collapse: released by China’s Xinhua News Agency, rescue workers search for survivors at the building collapse site in downtown Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Friday, March 29, 2013. A Tanzanian police official says two people have died after a building under construction collapsed in the country’s largest city and economic center. (Associated Press/Xinhua, Zhang Ping)