First Confidential

 


THIS DAY IN HISTORY - APRIL 3rd

Kin Hubbard, Quote

“There is no man who does not make the world better.” ~ film “Kingdom of Heaven

“Nemo vir est qui mundum non reddat meliorem” Literally: No one is a man who does not render the world better. ~ an old Latin inscription

Wikipedia (VIK, paganflow.deviantart)

This Day in History

April 3rd, 1559

Italian Wars: (Great Italian Wars or The Renaissance Wars), were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.

Italian Wars: The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis treaty is signed, ending the Italian Wars.

Wikipedia  Image: Italian Wars: (Great Italian Wars or The Renaissance Wars), were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.


April 3rd, 1865

Lincoln Memorial: an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln - located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument American Civil War: Battle of Antietam; Stone Bridge at Antietam Battlefield - Sharpsburg, Maryland American Civil War: American Civil War: First Battle Between Ironclads; CSS Virginia/Merrimac (left) vs. USS Monitor, in 1862 at the Battle of Hampton Roads

American Civil War:
1865 - Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States of America.

Wikipedia  Image: ● Lincoln Memorial; an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln - located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument.
● The northern army led by George McClellan and the southern army led by Robert E. Lee met at Antietam Creek, Maryland in September, 1862. It was a bloody battle where 13,000 Confederates and 12,000 Union troops died in just one day. McClellan had hesitated to attack before the battle thus letting the southern troops regroup. Also, he had saved reserves and refused to use them at the end of the battle thinking that Lee was holding reserves for a counterattack, even though those reserves didn't exist. The Union victory stopped Lee's northward advance and was a turning point in the war.
Battle of Antietam / Stone Bridge at Antietam Battlefield - Sharpsburg, Maryland
● First Battle Between Ironclads: CSS Virginia/Merrimac (left) vs. USS Monitor, in 1862 at the Battle of Hampton Roads.
Although photography was still in its infancy, war correspondents produced thousands of images, bringing the harsh realities of the frontlines to those on the home front in a new and visceral way. The Atlantic.


April 3rd, 1888

Whitechapel murders: The 'Nemesis of Neglect', an image of social destitution manifested as Jack the Ripper, stalks Whitechapel in a Punch cartoon of 1888 by Sir John Tenniel ● Lizzie Williams, a suspect in the Whitechapel murders of 1888.

Whitechapel murders: The first of 11 unsolved brutal murders of women committed in or near the impoverished Whitechapel district in the East End of London, occurs.

Wikipedia  Image: Whitechapel murders; The "Nemesis of Neglect", an image of social destitution manifested as Jack the Ripper, stalks Whitechapel in a Punch cartoon of 1888 by Sir John Tenniel ● Lizzie Williams, a suspect in the Whitechapel murders of 1888. credit: Daily Telegraph


April 3rd, 1922

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (December 18, 1878 – March 5. 1953) was the Premier of the Soviet Union from 6 May 1941 until his death in 5 March 1953

Joseph Stalin becomes the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Wikipedia  Photo: Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (December 18, 1878 – March 5. 1953) was the Premier of the Soviet Union from 6 May 1941 until his death in 5 March 1953 ● Young Ioseb, 1894, aged 16 (left) and 23 (right) 1902 ● Prior to the revolution of 1917, Stalin played an active role in fighting the tsarist government. Here he is shown on a 1911 information card from the files of the Tsarist secret police in Saint Petersburg ● Stalin and Vladimir Lenin in 1919 ● A group of participants in the 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party, 1919. In the middle are Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, and Mikhail Kalinin. ● Stalin in 1941, about 63 years of age.


April 3rd, 1933

Mount Everest: the Earth's highest mountain, with a peak at 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) above sea level. (Located in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas)

First flight over Mount Everest, a British expedition, led by the Marquis of Clydesdale, and funded by Lucy, Lady Houston.

Wikipedia  Image: Mount Everest: the Earth's highest mountain, with a peak at 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) above sea level. (Located in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas)


April 3rd, 1936

Charles Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974) (nicknamed 'Slim', 'Lucky Lindy' and 'The Lone Eagle') was an American aviator, author, inventor, explorer, and social activist (Lindbergh emerged suddenly from virtual obscurity to instantaneous world fame as the result of his Orteig Prize-winning solo non-stop flight on May 20–21, 1927, from New York's Long Island to Le Bourget Field in Paris, France, a distance of nearly 3,600 statute miles (5,800 km), in the single-seat, single-engine purpose built Ryan monoplane Spirit of St. Louis) Bruno Hauptmann is arrested for the kidnap and murder of Charles Lindbergh Jr.

Bruno Richard Hauptmann is executed for the kidnapping and death of the son of aviator Charles Lindbergh, Charles Augustus Lindbergh III.

Wikipedia  Photo: Charles Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974) (nicknamed 'Slim', 'Lucky Lindy' and 'The Lone Eagle') was an American aviator, author, inventor, explorer, and social activist. (Lindbergh emerged suddenly from virtual obscurity to instantaneous world fame as the result of his Orteig Prize-winning solo non-stop flight on May 20–21, 1927, from New York's Long Island to Le Bourget Field in Paris, France, a distance of nearly 3,600 statute miles (5,800 km), in the single-seat, single-engine purpose built Ryan monoplane Spirit of St. Louis.)
Bruno Hauptmann (Murder, Death by electrocution) / Charles Lindbergh Jr.


April 3rd, 1942

World War II: Second firestorm raid on Germany, the Royal Air Force conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf; Battle of Leyte Gulf; The first kamikaze attack: A Japanese plane carrying a 200-kilogram (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off Leyte Island World War II: German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944) World War II: Eastern Front (World War II); was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland, and some other Allies which encompassed Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945

World War II:
1942 - Battle of Bataan; Japanese forces begin an assault on the American and Filipino troops.
Post World War II:
1946 - Japanese Lt. General Masaharu Homma is executed in the Philippines for leading the Bataan Death March.
1948 - United States President Harry S. Truman signs the Marshall Plan, authorizing $5 billion in aid for 16 countries.

Wikipedia  Photo: Bombing of Dresden in World War II; August Schreitmüller's sculpture 'Goodness' surveys Dresden after a firestorm started by Allied bombers in 1945. USS Bunker Hill was hit by kamikazes piloted by Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa and another airman on 11 May 1945. 389 personnel were killed or missing from a crew of 2,600; Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa, who flew his aircraft into the USS Bunker Hill during a Kamikaze mission on 11 May 1945; Kamikaze Missions - Lt Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank is trailing fuel vapor and/or smoke 25 November 1944.
German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944), credit German History in Documents and Images GHDI.

Eastern Front (World War II); Germans race towards Stalingrad. August 1942; Soviet children during a German air raid in the first days of the war, June 1941, by RIA Novosti archive; Soviet sniper Roza Shanina in 1944. About 400,000 Soviet women served in front-line duty units Caucasus Mountains, winter 1942/43; Finnish ski patrol: the invisible enemy of the Soviet Army with an unlimited supply of skis; Men of the German Engineers Corps cross a river which is swollen after the first autumn rains, to strengthen bridges linking the German positions on the central front in Russia. by Keystone / Getty Images. October 1942; Russian snipers fighting on the Leningrad front during a blizzard. Photo by Hulton Archive / Getty Images, 1943; German soldiers surrendering to the Russians in Stalingrad, the soldier holding the white flag of surrender is dressed in white so that there could be no doubt of his intentions, a Russian soldier is on the right of the photograph. by Keystone / Getty Images, January 1943.


April 3rd, 1948

Korean War Collage

Korean War:
1948 - Jeju massacre; In Jeju, South Korea, a civil-war-like period of violence and human rights abuses begins.

Wikipedia  Photo: Korean War Collage credit, The Big Picture, Boston Globe - (Associated Press; U.S. Department of Defense / SGT. F.C. Kerr; AP Photo; U.S. Department of Defense / TSGT. Charles B. Tyler; U.S. Department of Defense / TSGT. Charles B. Tyler; U.S. Department of Defense / TSGT. Robert H. Mosier; AP Photo / Max Desfor; U.S. Department of Defense / CPL. P. McDonald; AP Photo / Max Desfor; AP Photo/George Sweers; U.S. Navy / Maj. R.V. Spencer, UAF; AP Photo / Max Desfor).


April 3rd, 1956

Tornado Collage: A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.

Tornadoes:
1956 - Hudsonville-Standale Tornado; The western half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan is struck by a deadly F5 tornado.
1974 - The Super Outbreak; occurs, the second biggest tornado outbreak in recorded history (after the April 25–28, 2011 tornado outbreak). The death toll is 315, with nearly 5,500 injured.

Wikipedia  Photo: Weather Front System; Tornado near Anadarko, Oklahoma; North Dakota Tornado; F3 Category Tornado Swirls Across A South Dakota Prairie by Carsten Peter; A waterspout parallels a lightning strike over Lake Okeechobee in Florida, by Fred K. Smith, National Geographics, Extream Instability.


April 3rd, 1996

Ted Kaczynski (also known as the 'Unabomber'), is an American murderer, mathematician, social critic and anarchist. Between 1978 and 1995, Kaczynski engaged in a nation-wide bombing campaign against modern technology, planting or mailing numerous home-made bombs, killing three people and injuring 23 others.

Suspected "Unabomber" Ted Kaczynski is captured at his cabin in Montana.

Wikipedia  Photo: Ted Kaczynski (also known as the 'Unabomber'), is an American murderer, mathematician, social critic and anarchist. Between 1978 and 1995, Kaczynski engaged in a nation-wide bombing campaign against modern technology, planting or mailing numerous home-made bombs, killing three people and injuring 23 others


April 3rd, 1996

Cold fusion is a hypothetical type of nuclear reaction that would occur at, or near, room temperature, compared with temperatures in the millions of degrees that is required for 'hot' fusion

Yugoslav Wars:
1996 - Croatia USAF CT-43 crash; A United States Air Force airplane carrying United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown crashes in Croatia, killing all 35 on board.

Wikipedia  Photo: ● Belgrade burning after NATO air raid (Ušće Tower building in the moments after bombing) ● U.S. F-117 Nighthawk taxis to the runway before taking off from Aviano Air Base, Italy, on March 24, 1999 ● USAF F-15E taking off from Aviano Air Base ● A Tomahawk cruise missile launches from the aft missile deck of the USS Gonzalez on March 31, 1999 ● Kosovar refugees.


April 3rd, 2008

Texas law enforcement cordons off the FLDS's YFZ Ranch. (Eventually 533 women and children will be removed and taken into state custody)

Texas law enforcement cordons off the FLDS's YFZ Ranch ( Eventually 533 women and children will be removed and taken into state custody.)

Wikipedia  Photo: Conventional-Train World Speed Record; TGV 4402 (operation V150) reaching 574 km/h on 3 April 2007 near Le Chemin, France. ● Part of TGV trainset 4402 displayed near the Eiffel Tower after the record.


April 3rd, 2013

More than 50 people die in floods resulting from record-breaking rainfall in La Plata and Buenos Aires, Argentina

Argentina floods: More than 50 people die in floods resulting from record-breaking rainfall in La Plata and Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Wikipedia  Photo: The building was under construction and did not have an occupancy certificate for its 100 to 150 low - to middle - income residents


April 3rd, 2017

List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

Modern conflicts in the Middle East:
2017 - Saint Petersburg Metro bombing; A bomb explodes in the Saint Petersburg metro system, killing 14 and injuring several more people.

Wikipedia  Photo: Middle East satellite image, NASA. ● Camels are seen early morning on a beach in the Marina area of Dubai October 16, 2008. (Steve Crisp, Reuters) ● A portrait of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad burns during clashes between rebels and Syrian troops in Selehattin, near Aleppo, on July 23, 2012. (Bulent Kilic, AFP / GettyImages) ● Egyptians gather in their thousands in Tahrir Square to mark the one year anniversary of the revolution on Jan. 25, 2012 in Cairo Egypt. Tens of thousands have gathered in the square on the first anniversary of the Arab uprising which toppled President Hosni Mubarak. (Jeff J Mitchell, Getty Images) ● Black smoke rises above the Tehran skyline as supporters of Mir Hossein Mousavi burn tires and other material in the streets as they fight running battles with police to protest the declared results of the Iranian presidential election in Tehran, Iran, Saturday, June 13, 2009. (Ben Curtis, AP) ● The Iron Dome defense system fires to interecpt incoming missiles from Gaza in the port town of Ashdod, Thursday, Nov. 15, 2012. (Tsafrir Abayov, AP)