First Confidential

 


THIS DAY IN HISTORY - JUNE 7th

Euripides, Quote

“When good men die their goodness does not perish, but lives though they are gone. As for the bad, all that was theirs dies and is buried with them.”

~ Euripides

Wikiquote (Euripides (480 BC – 406 BC) was one of the three great tragedians of classical Athens, the other two being Aeschylus and Sophocles.)

This Day in History

June 7th, 421

Byzantine Empire Collage Byzantine Empire Theodosius II marries Aelia Eudocia in Constantinople

Byzantine Empire (East Roman Empire):
421 - Emperor Theodosius II marries Aelia Eudocia in Constantinople.

Wikipedia  Image: The Baptism of Constantine painted by Raphael's pupils (1520–1524, fresco, Vatican City, Apostolic Palace); Mural of Saints Cyril and Methodius, 19th century, Troyan Monastery, Bulgaria; Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna; The Greek fire was first used by the Byzantine Navy during the Byzantine-Arab Wars (from the Madrid Skylitzes, Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid); Alexios I, founder of the Komnenos dynasty.


June 7th, 1099

Crusades collage: Crusades were a series of religious expeditionary wars blessed by Pope Urban II and the Catholic Church, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem - Jerusalem considered a sacred city and symbol of all three major Abrahamic faiths (Judaism, Christianity and Islam)

Crusades:
1099 - The First Crusade: The Siege of Jerusalem begins.

Wikipedia  Image: The Siege of Antioch, from a 15th-century miniature; After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey of Bouillon, leader of the First Crusade, became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem; Baldwin I of Jerusalem; Medieval image of Peter the Hermit, leading knights, soldiers and women toward Jerusalem during the First Crusade; The Battle of Ager Sanguinis, 1337 miniature; Pope Innocent III excommunicating the Albigensians, Massacre against the Albigensians by the crusaders; The capture of Jerusalem marked the First Crusade's success.


June 7th, 1494

Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal along a line 297.5 leagues or 17° east of the Moluccas on April 22nd, 1529.

Line of Demarcation (Treaty of Tordesillas): Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas which divides the New World between the two countries.

Wikipedia  Image: Portuguese discoveries; The Cantino planisphere, made by an anonymous cartographer in 1502, shows the world as it was known after the great discoveries of the end of the fifteenth century ● In 1494, Spain and Portugal agreed to split the "rights" to lands outside of Europe, drawing a line in the Atlantic a short distance west of Africa, credit Toranosuke, Flickr.


June 7th, 1692

Global Earthquake epicenters Mount Pinatubo: is an active stratovolcano located on the island of Luzon, near the tripoint of the Philippine provinces of Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga.

Earthquake:
1692 - Port Royal, Jamaica is hit by a catastrophic earthquake; in just three minutes, 1,600 people are killed and 3,000 are seriously injured.
1991 - Mount Pinatubo explodes generating an ash column 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) high.

Wikipedia  Image: Preliminary Determination of Epicenters / Aleppo Syria; Anchorage, Alaska - March 28, 1964 Prince William Sound USA earthquake and tsunami; 8.9 Mega Earthquake Strikes Japan; Tsunami Swirls Japan's Ibaraki Prefecture March 12 2011. credit NOAA / NGDC, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, USGS, National Geographics.
Mount Pinatubo (The eruption column of Mount Pinatubo on June 12, 1991, three days before the climactic eruption ● April 2nd 1991, the first magma eruption occurred)


June 7th, 1892

United States Supreme Court declares Alabama laws requiring segregated buses illegal, thus ending the Montgomery Bus Boycott

1892 - Homer Plessy is arrested for refusing to leave his seat in the "whites-only" car of a train; he would lose the resulting Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson.
1965 - In Griswold v. Connecticut the Supreme Court of the United States hands down its decision, effectively legalizing the use of contraception by married couples.
1971 - In Cohen v. California the Supreme Court of the United States overturns the conviction of Paul Cohen for disturbing the peace, setting the precedent that vulgar writing is protected under the First Amendment.

Wikipedia  Photo: United States Supreme Court building; Guardian of Law, by James Earle Fraser, US Supreme Court, Washington, DC, USA.


June 7th, 1893

Mohandas Gandhi Collage

Mahatma Gandhi's first act of civil disobedience.

Wikipedia  Photo: Mohandas Gandhi, Gandhi (1906), Mohandas K. Gandhi arrived in South Africa as a young British-trained lawyer (1893) - The New York Times; Gandhi in South Africa (1895); Mahatma Gandhi spinning yarn, (1920); Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.


June 7th, 1917

World War I: Collage World War I: Battle of Messines Allied ammonal mines underneath German trenches at Messines Ridge are detonated, killing 10,000 German troops

World War I:
1917 - Battle of Messines; Allied ammonal mines underneath German trenches at Messines Ridge are detonated, killing 10,000 German troops.
Post World War I:
1919 - Sette giugno; Riot in Malta.
1929 - Lateran Treaty is ratified, bringing Vatican City into existence.

Wikipedia  Photo: Trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark IV Tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III biplanes. National Archives and Records Administration.
Battle of the Lys (1918), British 55th (West Lancashire) Division troops blinded by tear gas during the battle, 10 April 1918.


June 7th, 1942

World War II: Second firestorm raid on Germany, the Royal Air Force conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf; Battle of Leyte Gulf; The first kamikaze attack: A Japanese plane carrying a 200-kilogram (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off Leyte Island World War II: German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944) World War II: Eastern Front (World War II); was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland, and some other Allies which encompassed Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945

World War II:
1942 - Battle of Midway ends.
1942 - Aleutian Islands Campaign; Japanese soldiers occupy the American islands of Attu and Kiska, in the Aleutian Islands off Alaska.
1944 - The steamer Danae carrying 350 Cretan Jews and 250 Cretan partisans is sunk without survivors off the shore of Santorini.
1944 - Battle of Normandy; At Abbey Ardennes members of the SS Division Hitlerjugend massacre 23 Canadian prisoners of war.

Wikipedia  Photo: Bombing of Dresden in World War II; August Schreitmüller's sculpture 'Goodness' surveys Dresden after a firestorm started by Allied bombers in 1945. USS Bunker Hill was hit by kamikazes piloted by Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa and another airman on 11 May 1945. 389 personnel were killed or missing from a crew of 2,600; Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa, who flew his aircraft into the USS Bunker Hill during a Kamikaze mission on 11 May 1945; Kamikaze Missions - Lt Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank is trailing fuel vapor and/or smoke 25 November 1944.
German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944), credit German History in Documents and Images GHDI.

Eastern Front (World War II); Germans race towards Stalingrad. August 1942; Soviet children during a German air raid in the first days of the war, June 1941, by RIA Novosti archive; Soviet sniper Roza Shanina in 1944. About 400,000 Soviet women served in front-line duty units Caucasus Mountains, winter 1942/43; Finnish ski patrol: the invisible enemy of the Soviet Army with an unlimited supply of skis; Men of the German Engineers Corps cross a river which is swollen after the first autumn rains, to strengthen bridges linking the German positions on the central front in Russia. by Keystone / Getty Images. October 1942; Russian snipers fighting on the Leningrad front during a blizzard. Photo by Hulton Archive / Getty Images, 1943; German soldiers surrendering to the Russians in Stalingrad, the soldier holding the white flag of surrender is dressed in white so that there could be no doubt of his intentions, a Russian soldier is on the right of the photograph. by Keystone / Getty Images, January 1943.


June 7th, 1989

Airliners Crash: ● Pan AM 747 ● U.S. Airways flight 1549 also known as the 'Miracle on the Hudson' navigates an exit ramp near Burlington, New Jersey, June 5, 2011 ● Passengers stand on the wings of a U.S. Airways plane as a ferry pulls up to it after it landed in the Hudson River in New York, Reuters ● US Airways plane crashes into New York Hudson River, Photo: AP

Aviation accidents and incidents:
1989 - Surinam Airways Flight 764; crashes on approach to Paramaribo-Zanderij International Airport in Suriname because of pilot error, killing 176 of 187 aboard.

Wikipedia  Photo: ● Pan AM 747 ● U.S. Airways flight 1549 also known as the "Miracle on the Hudson" navigates an exit ramp near Burlington, New Jersey, June 5, 2011 ● Passengers stand on the wings of a U.S. Airways plane as a ferry pulls up to it after it landed in the Hudson River in New York, Reuters ● US Airways plane crashes into New York Hudson River, Photo: AP


June 7th, 2014

Middle East satellite image; World satellite image

Modern conflicts in the Middle East:
2014 - South Kivu attack; At least 37 people are killed in an attack in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's South Kivu.
2013 - Santa Monica shooting; A gunman opens fire at Santa Monica College in Santa Monica, California, after setting a house on fire nearby, killing six people, including the suspect.
2013 - Xiamen bus fire; In a mass murder-suicide, A bus catches fire in the Chinese city of Xiamen, killing at least 47 people and injuring more than 34 others.
2006 - Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq, is killed in an airstrike by the United States Air Force.
2000 - The United Nations defines the Blue Line as the border between Israel and Lebanon.
1981 - Operation Opera; The Israeli Air Force destroys Iraq's Osiraq nuclear reactor - the facility could have been used to make nuclear weapons.
1967 - Six-Day War; The Israeli forces enter Jerusalem.

Wikipedia  Image: Middle East satellite image ● World satellite image.