First Confidential

 


THIS DAY IN HISTORY - SEPTEMBER 20th

Joyce Brothers, Quote

“We control fifty percent of a relationship. We influence one hundred percent of it.”

~ Joyce Brothers

Wikiquote (Joyce Brothers (born October 20, 1927) is an American psychologist, television personality and advice columnist, publishing a daily syndicated newspaper column since 1960.)

This Day in History

September 20th, 1187

Crusades collage: Crusades were a series of religious expeditionary wars blessed by Pope Urban II and the Catholic Church, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem - Jerusalem considered a sacred city and symbol of all three major Abrahamic faiths (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) Third Crusade: Siege of Acre; begins under Guy of Lusignan

Crusades:
1187 - Saladin begins the Siege of Jerusalem.

Wikipedia  Image: The Siege of Antioch, from a 15th-century miniature; After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey of Bouillon, leader of the First Crusade, became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem; Baldwin I of Jerusalem; Medieval image of Peter the Hermit, leading knights, soldiers and women toward Jerusalem during the First Crusade; The Battle of Ager Sanguinis, 1337 miniature; Pope Innocent III excommunicating the Albigensians, Massacre against the Albigensians by the crusaders; The capture of Jerusalem marked the First Crusade's success.
Third Crusade; depicting Saladin (1138 - 1193) holding Guy of Lusignan (1150 - 1194) captive in golden chains after the battle of Hattin in 1187. Guy of Lusignan is depicted wearing (Christian) royal red cloathes and Saladin is depicted wearing (Islamic) royal green cloathes, by Jan Lievens (1607-1674).


September 20th, 1519

Ferdinand Magellan sets sail from Sanlúcar de Barrameda with about 270 men on his expedition to circumnavigate the globe

Ferdinand Magellan sets sail from Sanlúcar de Barrameda with about 270 men on his expedition to circumnavigate the globe.

Wikipedia  Painting: Magellan’s Globe; Hans Holbein used this globe as reference for the small terrestrial globe in his famous masterpiece painting entitled The Ambassadors. (left Jean de Dinteville, French Ambassador to the court of Henry VIII - right is his childhood friend, Georges de Selve, Bishop of Lavaur).


September 20th, 1792

Napoleonic Wars: (1803–15) were a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions War of the First Coalition: Battle of Valmy; French troops stop allied invasion of France

French Revolutionary Wars / Napoleonic Wars:
1792 - War of the First Coalition: Battle of Valmy; French troops stop allied invasion of France.

Wikipedia  Painting: Battle of Trafalgar: The British HMS Sandwich fires to the French flagship Bucentaure (completely dismasted) in the battle of Trafalgar; Napoleon in Berlin (Meynier). After defeating Prussian forces at Jena, the French Army entered Berlin on 27 October 1806; Battle of the Bridge of Arcole Napoleon Bonaparte leading his troops over the bridge of Arcole, by Horace Vernet; Napoleon as King of Italy (Appiani); Napoleon Crossing the Alps (David). In 1800 Bonaparte took the French Army across the Alps, eventually defeating the Austrians at Marengo; Charge of the Russian Imperial Guard cavalry against French cuirassiers at the Battle of Friedland, 14 June 1807; Battle of Borodino as depicted by Louis Lejeune. The battle was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars; Napoleon's withdrawal from Russia, a painting by Adolph Northen; Wellington at Waterloo by Robert Alexander Hillingford; Napoleon is often represented in his green colonel uniform of the Chasseur à Cheval, with a large bicorne and a hand-in-waistcoat gesture.
Battle of Valmy was a decisive victory for the French revolutionary army.


September 20th, 1863

Lincoln Memorial: an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln - located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument American Civil War: Battle of Antietam; Stone Bridge at Antietam Battlefield - Sharpsburg, Maryland American Civil War: American Civil War: First Battle Between Ironclads; CSS Virginia/Merrimac (left) vs. USS Monitor, in 1862 at the Battle of Hampton Roads

American Civil War:
1863 - Battle of Chickamauga; most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater of the American Civil War nd involved the second highest number of casualties in the war following the Battle of Gettysburg.

Wikipedia  Image: ● Lincoln Memorial; an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln - located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument.
● The northern army led by George McClellan and the southern army led by Robert E. Lee met at Antietam Creek, Maryland in September, 1862. It was a bloody battle where 13,000 Confederates and 12,000 Union troops died in just one day. McClellan had hesitated to attack before the battle thus letting the southern troops regroup. Also, he had saved reserves and refused to use them at the end of the battle thinking that Lee was holding reserves for a counterattack, even though those reserves didn't exist. The Union victory stopped Lee's northward advance and was a turning point in the war.
Battle of Antietam / Stone Bridge at Antietam Battlefield - Sharpsburg, Maryland
● First Battle Between Ironclads: CSS Virginia/Merrimac (left) vs. USS Monitor, in 1862 at the Battle of Hampton Roads.
Although photography was still in its infancy, war correspondents produced thousands of images, bringing the harsh realities of the frontlines to those on the home front in a new and visceral way. The Atlantic.


September 20th, 1893

Charles Duryea and his brother road-test the first American-made gasoline-powered automobile

Charles Duryea and his brother road-test the first American-made gasoline-powered automobile.

Wikipedia  Photo: Duryea four-wheeler, manufactured in Reading, PA, in 1901. (Europeans invented the horseless carriages, but Americans embraced it. As early as 1896, J. Frank and Charles Duryea established the Duryea Motor Company in Peoria, Illinois, and sold the first dozen American-made cars.) Courtesy of the Boyertown Museum of Historic Vehicles


September 20th, 1942

World War II, The Holocaust

World War II: Holocaust;
1942 - Letychiv, Ukraine. In the course of two days the German SS murder at least 3,000 Jews.

Wikipedia  Photo: World War II, The Holocaust. Sources: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum USHMM, History 1900s, Internet Masters of Education Technology IMET, Techno Friends, Veterans Today, Concern.


September 20th, 2001

War on Terror: In an address to a joint session of Congress and the American people, U.S. President George W. Bush declares a war on terror

War on Terror:
2001 - In an address to a joint session of the United States Congress and the American people, U.S. President George W. Bush declares a “war on terror”.

Wikipedia  Photo: Aftermath of the 11 September attacks; U.S. soldiers at Forward Operating Base Bostick in eastern Afghanistan; Afghanistan troops fighting al-Qaida, Taliban, July 2009; Afghan War, War on Terror, Afghanistan, Australian Defence Forces; Lackland trained and deployed thousands of military working dog teams throughout the world, including the war on terror in Afghanistan.