First Confidential

 


THIS DAY IN HISTORY - OCTOBER 12th

Christopher Columbus, Quote

“I have always read that the world, both land and water, was spherical, as the authority and researches of Ptolemy and all the others who have written on this subject demonstrate and prove, as do the eclipses of the moon and other experiments that are made from east to west, and the elevation of the North Star from north to south.”

~ Christopher Columbus

Wikiquote (Christopher Columbus (October 31, 1451 – May 20, 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer, born in the Republic of Genoa, in what is today northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the Spanish colonization of the New World.)

This Day in History

October 12th, 1113

Saint Stephen< (He greatly expanded Hungarian control over the Carpathian Basin during his lifetime, broadly established Christianity in the region, and is generally regarded as the founder of the Kingdom of Hungary); Statue of Saint Stephen, Fisherman's Bastion, Budapest, Hungary. David Noton/Getty Images Béla I of Hungary (National Historical Memorial Park in Ópusztaszer); Medieval Castle, the Palace of Visegrad in Hungary ● Budapest parliament building  ● Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape Hungary (UNESCO Heritage Site) ● Landscape at Lake Balaton, Hungary

1113 - The first documented mention under the Latin name Varadinum ("vár" means fortress in Hungarian) and the celebration day of the city Oradea while its bishopric was founded during the 11th century by King Ladislaus I of Hungary.

Wikipedia  Image: Saint Stephen (He greatly expanded Hungarian control over the Carpathian Basin during his lifetime, broadly established Christianity in the region, and is generally regarded as the founder of the Kingdom of Hungary); Statue of Saint Stephen, Fisherman's Bastion, Budapest, Hungary. David Noton/Getty Images.
Béla I of Hungary (National Historical Memorial Park in Ópusztaszer); Medieval Castle, the Palace of Visegrad in Hungary. ● Budapest parliament building ● Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape Hungary (UNESCO Heritage Site) ● Landscape at Lake Balaton, Hungary.


October 12th, 1279

Nichiren, a Japanese Buddhist monk founder of Nichiren Buddhism, inscribes the Dai-Gohonzon

Nichiren, a Japanese Buddhist monk founder of Nichiren Buddhism, inscribes the Dai-Gohonzon.

Wikipedia  Photo: The Ocean of the Law.


October 12th, 1492

Christopher Columbus' fleet of three ships sets sail from Spain in 1492, credit Kean Collection / Hulton Archive / Getty Images

1492 - Christopher Columbus's expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean, specifically in The Bahamas. The explorer believes he has reached India.
1792 - First celebration of Columbus Day in the United States held in New York City.
1892 - Pledge of Allegiance is first recited by students in many United States public schools, as part of a celebration marking the 400th anniversary of Columbus's voyage.

Wikipedia  Paintings: Christopher Columbus' fleet of three ships sets sail from Spain in 1492. credit Kean Collection / Hulton Archive / Getty Images; Christopher Columbus pointing to land in the New World; Romantic Painting of Christopher Columbus arriving to the Americas Primer desembarco de Cristóbal Colón en América, by Dióscoro Puebla 1862.


October 12th, 1692

Salem witch trials: are ended by a letter from Massachusetts Governor William Phips

Salem witch trials: are ended by a letter from Massachusetts Governor William Phips.

Wikipedia  Painting: "Examination of a Witch" in Salem; Salem Witchcraft Trials 1692


October 12th, 1918

Massive forest fire kills 453 people in Minnesota

Massive forest fire kills 453 people in Minnesota.

Wikipedia  Photo: Fire destroying Pagami Creek, Minnesota, September 14, 2011.


October 12th, 1928

Iron lung respirator is used for the first time at Children's Hospital, Boston

Iron lung respirator is used for the first time at Children's Hospital, Boston.

Wikipedia  Photo: Single Child Iron Lung Respirator 1930.


October 12th, 1944

World War II: Second firestorm raid on Germany, the Royal Air Force conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf; Battle of Leyte Gulf; The first kamikaze attack: A Japanese plane carrying a 200-kilogram (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off Leyte Island World War II: German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944) World War II: Eastern Front (World War II); was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland, and some other Allies which encompassed Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945

World War II:
1942 - Battle of Cape Esperance; on the northwest coast of Guadalcanal, Japanese fleet retreat after defeat by United States Navy.
1944 - The Liberation of Athens from the German invaders.
1945 - Desmond Doss is the first conscientious objector to receive the U.S. Medal of Honor.

Wikipedia  Photo: Bombing of Dresden in World War II; August Schreitmüller's sculpture 'Goodness' surveys Dresden after a firestorm started by Allied bombers in 1945.
USS Bunker Hill was hit by kamikazes piloted by Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa and another airman on 11 May 1945. 389 personnel were killed or missing from a crew of 2,600; Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa, who flew his aircraft into the USS Bunker Hill during a Kamikaze mission on 11 May 1945; Kamikaze Missions - Lt Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank is trailing fuel vapor and/or smoke 25 November 1944.
German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944), credit German History in Documents and Images GHDI.

Eastern Front (World War II); Germans race towards Stalingrad. August 1942; Soviet children during a German air raid in the first days of the war, June 1941, by RIA Novosti archive; Soviet sniper Roza Shanina in 1944. About 400,000 Soviet women served in front-line duty units Caucasus Mountains, winter 1942/43; Finnish ski patrol: the invisible enemy of the Soviet Army with an unlimited supply of skis; Men of the German Engineers Corps cross a river which is swollen after the first autumn rains, to strengthen bridges linking the German positions on the central front in Russia. by Keystone / Getty Images. October 1942; Russian snipers fighting on the Leningrad front during a blizzard. Photo by Hulton Archive / Getty Images, 1943; German soldiers surrendering to the Russians in Stalingrad, the soldier holding the white flag of surrender is dressed in white so that there could be no doubt of his intentions, a Russian soldier is on the right of the photograph. by Keystone / Getty Images, January 1943.


October 12th, 1960

Cold War: often dated from 1947–1991, was a sustained state of political and military tension between the powers of the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, and the communist world, led by the Soviet Union, its satellite states and allies Nikita Khrushchev, leader of Soviet Union, pounds his shoe on a desk at United Nations General Assembly meeting to protest a Philippine assertion of Soviet Union colonial policy being conducted in Eastern Europe Cold War: U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet in Reykjavík, Iceland, in an effort to continue discussions about scaling back their intermediate missile arsenals in Europe

Cold War:
1960 - Nikita Khrushchev, leader of Soviet Union, pounds his shoe on a desk at United Nations General Assembly meeting to protest a Philippine assertion of Soviet Union colonial policy being conducted in Eastern Europe.

Wikipedia  Photo: Lockheed C-130 Hercules; RAF Menwith Hill, a large site in the United Kingdom, part of ECHELON and the UKUSA Agreement; New Zealand nuclear test, British nuclear tests near the Malden and Christmas Islands in the mid-Pacific in 1957 and 1958; Nevada nuclear tests, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Federal Facilities;
Shoe-banging incident, The famous fake image of Khrushchev waving a shoe (above), and the original photo made at the United Nations General Assembly, September 23, 1960, AP archives;
United States President Ronald Reagan with President of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, Reykjavik, Iceland Summit. Guardian UK.


October 12th, 1962

October Typhoon - Storms

Typhoon / Storms:
1962 - Infamous Columbus Day Storm strikes the U.S. Pacific Northwest with record wind velocities; 46 dead.
1979 - Typhoon Tip; the lowest recorded non-tornadic atmospheric pressure, 87.0 kPa (870 mbar or 25.69 inHg), occurred in the Western Pacific.

Wikipedia  Photo: Typhoon Ketsana. NASA Earth Observatory.


October 12th, 1967

Vietnam War: U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk states during a news conference that proposals by the U.S. Congress for peace initiatives are futile because of North Vietnam's opposition

Vietnam War:
1967 - U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk states during a news conference that proposals by the United States Congress for peace initiatives are futile because of North Vietnam's opposition.
1970 - U.S. President Richard Nixon announces that the United States will withdraw 40,000 more troops before Christmas.

Wikipedia  Photo: Vietnam War: Hovering U.S. Army helicopters pour machine gun fire into a tree line to cover the advance of South Vietnamese ground troops in an attack on a Viet Cong camp 18 miles north of Tay Ninh, northwest of Saigon near the Cambodian border, in Vietnam on March 1965. (AP Photo / Horst Faas) / Boston Globe


October 12th, 2002

Terrorists detonate bombs in the Sari Club in Kuta, Bali, killing 202 and wounding over 300

2002 Bali bombings: terrorists detonate bombs in the Sari Club in Kuta, Bali, killing 202 and wounding over 300.

Wikipedia  Photo: 2002 Bali bombings


October 12th, 2017

The United States announces its decision to withdraw from UNESCO, and is immediately followed by Israel.

United States announces its decision to withdraw from UNESCO, and is immediately followed by Israel.

Wikipedia  Photo: Audrey Azoulay, a former French culture minister, was elected director general of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Trump administration’s decision a day earlier to withdraw the United States from the organization. (Philippe Wojazer/Reuters)