First Confidential

 


THIS DAY IN HISTORY - NOVEMBER 7th

Albert Camus, Quote

“Do not wait for the Last Judgment. It takes place every day.”

~ Albert Camus

Wikiquote (Albert Camus (November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960) a (French Nobel Prize winning author, journalist, and philosopher. His views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism. He wrote in his essay "The Rebel" that his whole life was devoted to opposing the philosophy of nihilism while still delving deeply into individual freedom.)

This Day in History

November 7th, 1665

The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published

The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published.

Wikipedia  Image: The London Gazette July 13, 1666; Detail of the Great Fire of London by an unknown painter, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September 1666 from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf.


November 7th, 1775

John Murray, the Royal Governor of the Colony of Virginia, starts the first mass emancipation of slaves in North America

John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, the Royal Governor of the Colony of Virginia, starts the first mass emancipation of slaves in North America by issuing Lord Dunmore's Offer of Emancipation, which offers freedom to slaves who abandoned their colonial masters in order to fight with Murray and the British.

Wikipedia  Image: John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; Colonial Map of Virginia from 1758 (Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Rhode Island: Of Aquanishuonigy the country of the Confederate Indians comprehending Aquanishuonigy proper, their places of residence, Ohio and Tuchsochruntie their deer hunting countries, Couchsachrage and Skaniadarade, their beaver hunting countries, of the Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Champlain, ... exhibiting the antient and present seats of the Indian nations. Published by Lewis Evans at Philadelphia; corrected and improved with the addition of the line of forts on the back settlements, by Thomas Jefferys).


November 7th, 1861

Lincoln Memorial: an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln - located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument American Civil War: Battle of Antietam; Stone Bridge at Antietam Battlefield - Sharpsburg, Maryland American Civil War: American Civil War: First Battle Between Ironclads; CSS Virginia/Merrimac (left) vs. USS Monitor, in 1862 at the Battle of Hampton Roads

American Civil War:
1837 - Pre-Civil War; in Alton, Illinois, abolitionist printer Elijah P. Lovejoy is shot dead by a mob while attempting to protect his printing shop from being destroyed a third time.
1861 - Battle of Belmont; In Belmont, Missouri, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant overrun a Confederate camp but are forced to retreat when Confederate reinforcements arrive.

Wikipedia  Image: ● Lincoln Memorial; an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln - located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument.
● The northern army led by George McClellan and the southern army led by Robert E. Lee met at Antietam Creek, Maryland in September, 1862. It was a bloody battle where 13,000 Confederates and 12,000 Union troops died in just one day. McClellan had hesitated to attack before the battle thus letting the southern troops regroup. Also, he had saved reserves and refused to use them at the end of the battle thinking that Lee was holding reserves for a counterattack, even though those reserves didn't exist. The Union victory stopped Lee's northward advance and was a turning point in the war.
Battle of Antietam / Stone Bridge at Antietam Battlefield - Sharpsburg, Maryland
● First Battle Between Ironclads: CSS Virginia/Merrimac (left) vs. USS Monitor, in 1862 at the Battle of Hampton Roads.
Although photography was still in its infancy, war correspondents produced thousands of images, bringing the harsh realities of the frontlines to those on the home front in a new and visceral way. The Atlantic.


November 7th, 1874

Cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly, is considered the first important use of an elephant as a symbol for the United States Republican Party

Cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly, is considered the first important use of an elephant as a symbol for the United States Republican Party.

Wikipedia  Image: The elephant has been a symbol of strength since Roman times. Its first use by the Republican Party is believed to date from a printer’s cut (pre-made pictures kept ready to use as illustrations when needed) of an elephant used by an Illinois newspaper during Abraham Lincoln’s 1860 presidential campaign, credit Oklahoma State University.


November 7th, 1908

Butch Cassidy, Fort Worth, Texas, 1900; Sundance Kid and Place before they headed to South America American Old West: Second-in-command of Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch gang

Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid are reportedly killed in San Vicente, Bolivia.

Wikipedia  Image: Butch Cassidy, Fort Worth, Texas, 1900; Sundance Kid and Place before they headed to South America; Sitting (l to r): Harry A. Longabaugh, alias the Sundance Kid, Ben Kilpatrick, alias the Tall Texan, Robert Leroy Parker, alias Butch Cassidy; Standing (l to r): Will Carver, alias News Carver and Harvey Logan, alias Kid Curry; Fort Worth, Texas, 1900. Click a person for more information.


November 7th, 1914

World War I: Collage

World War I:
1914 - The German colony of Kiaochow Bay and its centre at Tsingtao are captured by Japanese forces.
1917 - Third Battle of Gaza ends; British forces capture Gaza from the Ottoman Empire.

Wikipedia  Photo: Trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark IV Tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III biplanes. National Archives and Records Administration.


November 7th, 1916

October Revolution: the capture of the Winter Palace, Petrograd, Russia

Jeannette Rankin is the first woman elected to the United States Congress

Wikipedia  Photo: Jeannette Rankin, a Republican from Montana, entered the U.S. House of Representatives, the first woman ever elected to Congress. She served from 1917 to 1919 and again from 1941 to 1942; a pacifist, she was the only lawmaker to vote against U.S. entry into both world wars, credit Imow.org.


November 7th, 1917

Russian Revolution Collage

Russian Revolution:
1917 - October Revolution; The capture of the Winter Palace, Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), Russia.
1919 - The first Palmer Raid, is conducted on the second anniversary of the Russian Revolution. Over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists are arrested in twenty-three different U.S. cities.
1931 - The Chinese Soviet Republic is proclaimed on the anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution.

Wikipedia  Image: The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union


November 7th, 1918

1918 influenza epidemic spreads to Western Samoa, killing 7,542 (about 20% of the population) by the end of the year

1918 influenza epidemic spreads to Western Samoa, killing 7,542 (about 20% of the population) by the end of the year.

Wikipedia  Photo: Soldiers from Fort Riley, Kansas ill with Spanish influenza at a hospital ward at Camp Funston in 1918, where the worldwide pandemic is hypothesized by some to have begun.


November 7th, 1929

New York City: the Museum of Modern Art opens to the public

New York City: the Museum of Modern Art opens.

Wikipedia  Photo: Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York City; collection highlights, Vincent van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889 / Henri Matisse, The Dance I, 1909


November 7th, 1940

Tacoma, Washington: the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapses in a windstorm, a mere four months after the bridge's completion

Tacoma, Washington: the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapses in a windstorm, a mere four months after the bridge's completion.

Wikipedia  Photo: The original Tacoma Narrows Bridge roadway twisted and vibrated violently under 40-mile-per-hour (64 km/h) winds on the day of the collapse; 1940 Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsing, in a frame from a 16mm Kodachrome motion picture film taken by Barney Elliott.


November 7th, 1941

World War II: Second firestorm raid on Germany, the Royal Air Force conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf; Battle of Leyte Gulf; The first kamikaze attack: A Japanese plane carrying a 200-kilogram (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off Leyte Island World War II: German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944) World War II: Eastern Front (World War II); was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland, and some other Allies which encompassed Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945

World War II:
1941 - Soviet hospital ship Armenia is sunk by German planes while evacuating refugees and wounded military and staff of several Crimean hospitals. It is estimated that over 5,000 people died in the sinking.
1944 - Soviet spy Richard Sorge, a half-Russian, half-German World War I veteran, is hanged by his Japanese captors along with 34 of his ring.
1944 - Franklin D. Roosevelt elected for a record fourth term as President of the United States of America.

Wikipedia  Photo: Bombing of Dresden in World War II; August Schreitmüller's sculpture 'Goodness' surveys Dresden after a firestorm started by Allied bombers in 1945. USS Bunker Hill was hit by kamikazes piloted by Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa and another airman on 11 May 1945. 389 personnel were killed or missing from a crew of 2,600; Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa, who flew his aircraft into the USS Bunker Hill during a Kamikaze mission on 11 May 1945; Kamikaze Missions - Lt Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank is trailing fuel vapor and/or smoke 25 November 1944.
German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944), credit German History in Documents and Images GHDI.

Eastern Front (World War II); Germans race towards Stalingrad. August 1942; Soviet children during a German air raid in the first days of the war, June 1941, by RIA Novosti archive; Soviet sniper Roza Shanina in 1944. About 400,000 Soviet women served in front-line duty units Caucasus Mountains, winter 1942/43; Finnish ski patrol: the invisible enemy of the Soviet Army with an unlimited supply of skis; Men of the German Engineers Corps cross a river which is swollen after the first autumn rains, to strengthen bridges linking the German positions on the central front in Russia. by Keystone / Getty Images. October 1942; Russian snipers fighting on the Leningrad front during a blizzard. Photo by Hulton Archive / Getty Images, 1943; German soldiers surrendering to the Russians in Stalingrad, the soldier holding the white flag of surrender is dressed in white so that there could be no doubt of his intentions, a Russian soldier is on the right of the photograph. by Keystone / Getty Images, January 1943.


November 7th, 1957

Cold War: often dated from 1947–1991, was a sustained state of political and military tension between the powers of the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, and the communist world, led by the Soviet Union, its satellite states and allies

Cold War:
1957 - The Gaither Report calls for more American missiles and fallout shelters.

Wikipedia  Photo: Lockheed C-130 Hercules; RAF Menwith Hill, a large site in the United Kingdom, part of ECHELON and the UKUSA Agreement; New Zealand nuclear test, British nuclear tests near the Malden and Christmas Islands in the mid-Pacific in 1957 and 1958; Nevada nuclear tests, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Federal Facilities.


November 7th, 1973

U.S. Congress overrides President Richard M. Nixon's veto of the War Powers Resolution, which limits presidential power to wage war without congressional approval

Congress of the United States overrides President Richard M. Nixon's veto of the War Powers Resolution, which limits presidential power to wage war without congressional approval.

Wikipedia  Photo: Congress Barking, Not Biting, on War Powers - The United States Capitol Dome is pictured behind a cherry blossom tree. (Hyungwon Kang / courtesy Reuters)


November 7th, 1996

NASA's Mars Global Surveyor reaches Mars

NASA's Mars Global Surveyor reaches Mars.

Wikipedia  Photo: Pictures of Satellites - Landsat 7; Earth Observing System - EOS AM 1; Mars Global Surveyor - MGS; NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. credit NASA / JPL.


November 7th, 2000

Hillary Rodham Clinton is elected to the United States Senate, becoming the first former First Lady to win public office in the United States, although actually she still was the First Lady

Hillary Rodham Clinton is elected to the United States Senate, becoming the first former First Lady to win public office in the United States, although actually she still was the First Lady.

Wikipedia  Picture: Hillary Rodham Clinton, 2003. Credit: Scott Barbour / Getty Images; Hillary Rodham Clinton's Living History


November 7th, 2000

United States presidential election, 2000: was a contest between Republican candidate George W. Bush, the governor of Texas and son of former president George H. W. Bush, and Democratic candidate Al Gore, the Vice President - Voting machines disputed ballots

United States presidential election, 2000: that is later resolved in the Bush v. Gore Supreme Court Case.

Wikipedia  Photo: United States presidential election, 2000; was a contest between Republican candidate George W. Bush, the governor of Texas and son of former president George H. W. Bush, and Democratic candidate Al Gore, the Vice President - Voting machines disputed ballots (A canvassing board member showing a disputed ballot to an election observer at the Broward County Courthouse in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., Nov. 23, 2000, Rhoma Wise — AFP / Getty Images).


November 7th, 2004

Iraq War: The Persian Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a UN-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait

Gulf War - War in Iraq:
2004 - The interim government of Iraq calls for a 60-day "state of emergency" as U.S. forces storm the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah.

Wikipedia  Photo: USAF F-15Es, F-16s, and a USAF F-15 flying over burning Kuwaiti oil wells; Iraqi Army T-72 main battle tanks. The T-72 tank was a common Iraqi battle tank used in the Gulf War; F-15Es parked during Operation Desert Shield; The oil fires caused were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait; Aerial view of destroyed Iraqi T-72 tank, BMP-1 and Type 63 armored personnel carriers and trucks on Highway 8 in March 1991.


November 7th, 2007

Jokela school shooting: Bullet holes in glass are seen on the first floor of the Jokela school center in Tuusula, Finland, Thursday, Nov. 8. 2007, a day after a deadly shooting at the school. AP / Finland NBI, CBS News

Jokela school shooting: in Tuusula, Finland, resulting in the death of nine people.

Wikipedia  Photo: Jokela school shooting; Bullet holes in glass are seen on the first floor of the Jokela school center in Tuusula, Finland, Thursday, Nov. 8. 2007, a day after a deadly shooting at the school. AP / Finland NBI, CBS News.


November 7th, 2012

Global Earthquake epicenters

Earthquake:
2012 - An earthquake off the Pacific coast of Guatemala kills at least 52 people.

Wikipedia  Image: Preliminary Determination of Epicenters / Aleppo Syria; Anchorage, Alaska - March 28, 1964 Prince William Sound USA earthquake and tsunami; 8.9 Mega Earthquake Strikes Japan; Tsunami Swirls Japan's Ibaraki Prefecture March 12 2011. credit NOAA / NGDC, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, USGS, National Geographics.