First Confidential

 


THIS DAY IN HISTORY - NOVEMBER 27th

Elbert Hubbard, Quote

“I would rather be able to appreciate things I cannot have than to have things I am not able to appreciate.”

~ Elbert Hubbard

Wikiquote (Elbert Hubbard (Elbert Green Hubbard (June 19, 1856 – May 7, 1915) was an American writer, publisher, artist, and philosopher.)

This Day in History

November 27th, 43 BC

Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that began growing on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world Roman Empire Marcus Aurelius Equestrian Roman Empire Decline and Fall of Rome

Roman Empire:
43 BC - Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus ("Octavian", later "Caesar Augustus"), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Mark Antony is formed.
176 - Emperor Marcus Aurelius grants his son Commodus the rank of Imperator and makes him Supreme Commander of the Roman legions.
395 - Emperor Rufinus, praetorian prefect of the East, is murdered by Gothic mercenaries under Gainas.

Wikipedia  Photo: ● Ancient roman statue ● Detail of Head from Roman Statue of Antinous, credit Corbis ● Statue of Neptune, Trevi Fountain, Rome ● International Sand Sculpture Festival, FIESA 7 ancient Rome.
The Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, 176;
Relief from a 3rd-century sarcophagus depicting a battle between Romans and Germanic warriors; the central figure is perhaps the emperor Hostilian / Depiction of the Menorah on the Arch of Titus in Rome.


November 27th, 1095

Crusades collage: Crusades were a series of religious expeditionary wars blessed by Pope Urban II and the Catholic Church, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem - Jerusalem considered a sacred city and symbol of all three major Abrahamic faiths (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) Crusades: Battle of Montgisard; 1177, by Charles Philippe Larivière

Crusades
1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.

Wikipedia  Image: The Siege of Antioch, from a 15th-century miniature; After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey of Bouillon, leader of the First Crusade, became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem; Baldwin I of Jerusalem; Medieval image of Peter the Hermit, leading knights, soldiers and women toward Jerusalem during the First Crusade; The Battle of Ager Sanguinis, 1337 miniature; Pope Innocent III excommunicating the Albigensians, Massacre against the Albigensians by the crusaders; The capture of Jerusalem marked the First Crusade's success.
Crusades: Battle of Montgisard; 1177, by Charles Philippe Larivière.


November 27th, 1727

The foundation stone to the Jerusalem's Church in Berlin is laid

The foundation stone to the Jerusalem's Church in Berlin is laid.

Wikipedia  Image: Jerusalem's Church in 1906, seen from south (Lindenstraße), view into Jerusalemer Straße with Lindenstr. continuing to the right (destroyed in WWII); Berlin Cathedral.


November 27th, 1863

Lincoln Memorial: an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln - located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument American Civil War: Battle of Antietam; Stone Bridge at Antietam Battlefield - Sharpsburg, Maryland American Civil War: American Civil War: First Battle Between Ironclads; CSS Virginia/Merrimac (left) vs. USS Monitor, in 1862 at the Battle of Hampton Roads

American Civil War:
1863 - Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and several of his men escape the Ohio Penitentiary and return safely to the South.
1863 - Battle of Mine Run; Union forces under General George Meade position against troops led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee.

Wikipedia  Image: ● Lincoln Memorial; an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln - located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument.
● The northern army led by George McClellan and the southern army led by Robert E. Lee met at Antietam Creek, Maryland in September, 1862. It was a bloody battle where 13,000 Confederates and 12,000 Union troops died in just one day. McClellan had hesitated to attack before the battle thus letting the southern troops regroup. Also, he had saved reserves and refused to use them at the end of the battle thinking that Lee was holding reserves for a counterattack, even though those reserves didn't exist. The Union victory stopped Lee's northward advance and was a turning point in the war.
Battle of Antietam / Stone Bridge at Antietam Battlefield - Sharpsburg, Maryland
● First Battle Between Ironclads: CSS Virginia/Merrimac (left) vs. USS Monitor, in 1862 at the Battle of Hampton Roads.
Although photography was still in its infancy, war correspondents produced thousands of images, bringing the harsh realities of the frontlines to those on the home front in a new and visceral way. The Atlantic.


November 27th, 1868

American Indians collage Battle of the Little Bighorn and the death of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer

American Indian Wars:
1868 - Battle of Washita River, United States Army Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer leads an attack on Cheyenne living on reservation land.

Wikipedia  Photos: American Indians - Chief Crazy Horse, Tashunca-uitco (1849 - 1877) ● Geronimo Apache Chief (1829 - 1909) ● Indian Chief 'Two Eagles'; Crow Indian Chief ● Snake Cheif ● Band of Chiricahua Apache Indians, followers of legendary renegade Geronimo, attending a peace negotiation after a long struggle against U.S. government attempts to force them onto reservations - Tombstone, Arizona (1886), Life Magazine ● American Horse - Oglala ● Native American Arapaho Indian ● Washakie, Shoshone leader ● Arapaho American Indian Chief.
Painting: Battle of the Little Bighorn; "The Custer Fight" by Charles Marion Russell.


November 27th, 1940

World War II: Second firestorm raid on Germany, the Royal Air Force conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf; Battle of Leyte Gulf; The first kamikaze attack: A Japanese plane carrying a 200-kilogram (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off Leyte Island World War II: German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944)

World War II:
1940 - In Romania, the ruling party Iron Guard arrests and executes over 60 of exiled King Carol II of Romania's aides, including former minister Nicolae Iorga.
1940 - Battle of Cape Spartivento;, the Royal Navy engages the Regia Marina in the Mediterranean Sea.
1942 - Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon; at Toulon, the French navy scuttles its ships and submarines to keep them out of Nazi hands.
1944 - An explosion at a Royal Air Force ammunition dump at Fauld, Staffordshire kills seventy people.
1944 - Germany begins V-1 and V-2 attacks on Antwerp, Belgium.

Wikipedia  Photo: Bombing of Dresden in World War II; August Schreitmüller's sculpture 'Goodness' surveys Dresden after a firestorm started by Allied bombers in 1945.
USS Bunker Hill was hit by kamikazes piloted by Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa and another airman on 11 May 1945. 389 personnel were killed or missing from a crew of 2,600; Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa, who flew his aircraft into the USS Bunker Hill during a Kamikaze mission on 11 May 1945; Kamikaze Missions - Lt Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank is trailing fuel vapor and/or smoke 25 November 1944.
German V1 flying-bomb and V2 Rockets - Preparations for a Salvo Launch of V-2 Rockets in the Heidelager near Blizna (Poland) (1944), credit German History in Documents and Images GHDI.


November 27th, 1963

Assassination_of_John_F._Kennedy: In Dallas, Texas, US President John F. Kennedy is assassinated and Texas Governor John B. Connally is seriously wounded Lee Harvey Oswald is murdered by Jack Ruby in the basement of Dallas police department headquarter

Assassination of John F. Kennedy:
1963 - President Lyndon B. Johnson makes his first address to Congress as president following the assassination of John F. Kennedy five days prior.

Wikipedia  Photo: Dealey Plaza, with Elm Street on the right and the underpass in the middle; President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine, minutes before the President's assassination; Texas School Book Depository; Aerial view of Dealey Plaza, credit Paullee.com - A - "The Sniper's Nest", south-east corner window of the 6th floor (5th floor for Europeans) of the Texas School Book Depository Building B - "The Grassy Knoll", speculated location of second gunman C - Approximate location of limousine at time of first shot D - Approximate location of limousine at time of the "neck wound" shot E - Approximate location of limousine at time of fatal head wound F - James Tague's location. Note how far away he is from the shots! G - Abraham Zapruder's filming location, on top of a stone pedestal, James Altgen's Press Photograph; Secret Service agent Clint Hill climbs onto the presidential limousine, seconds after the fatal shot. Associated Press photo open-topped limo in Dallas, Time Magazine; Mary Moorman's Polaroid photo taken a fraction of a second after the fatal shot; Zapruder film at moment of fatal head shot.
A horse-drawn caisson bears the body of President John F. Kennedy into Arlington Cemetery, November 25, 1963.


November 27th, 1965

Vietnam War: Hovering U.S. Army helicopters</a> pour machine gun fire into a tree line to cover the advance of South Vietnamese ground troops in an attack on a Viet Cong camp 18 miles north of Tay Ninh, northwest of Saigon near the Cambodian border, in Vietnam on March 1965

Vietnam War:
1965 - The Pentagon tells United States President Lyndon B. Johnson that if planned operations are to succeed, the number of American troops in Vietnam has to be increased from 120,000 to 400,000.

Wikipedia  Photo: Vietnam War: Hovering U.S. Army helicopters pour machine gun fire into a tree line to cover the advance of South Vietnamese ground troops in an attack on a Viet Cong camp 18 miles north of Tay Ninh, northwest of Saigon near the Cambodian border, in Vietnam on March 1965. (AP Photo / Horst Faas) / Boston Globe


November 27th, 1971

Soviet space program's Mars 2 orbiter releases a descent module. It malfunctions and crashes, but it is the first man-made object to reach the surface of Mars

Soviet space program:
1971 - The Mars Probe 2 orbiter releases a descent module. It malfunctions and crashes, but it is the first man-made object to reach the surface of Mars.

Wikipedia  Image: Sergei Korolev, harboured plans to go to Mars. In 1960, he gained permission from the Kremlin to forge ahead with proposals for both manned and unmanned interplanetary missions. In 1960, 2 attempts were made to launch probes to Mars, in the Marsnik program. In 1962, the Mars 1 probe was launched, but only to within approximately 190,000 km from Mars before resuming a heliocentric orbit. The Mars 2 and Mars 3 probes did at least reach Mars, but their descent modules malfunctioned either on descent or shortly after landing on the Martian surface. credit Newsfeed.Kosmograd.


November 27th, 1983

Airliners Crash: ● Pan AM 747 ● U.S. Airways flight 1549 also known as the 'Miracle on the Hudson' navigates an exit ramp near Burlington, New Jersey, June 5, 2011 ● Passengers stand on the wings of a U.S. Airways plane as a ferry pulls up to it after it landed in the Hudson River in New York, Reuters ● US Airways plane crashes into New York Hudson River, Photo: AP

Aviation accidents and incidents:
1983 - Avianca Flight 011; a Boeing 747 crashes near Madrid's Barajas Airport, killing 181.
1989 - Avianca Flight 203; a Boeing 727 explodes in mid-air over Colombia, killing all 107 people on board and three people on the ground. The Medellín Cartel claimes responsibility for the attack.

Wikipedia  Photo: ● Pan AM 747 ● U.S. Airways flight 1549 also known as the "Miracle on the Hudson" navigates an exit ramp near Burlington, New Jersey, June 5, 2011 ● Passengers stand on the wings of a U.S. Airways plane as a ferry pulls up to it after it landed in the Hudson River in New York, Reuters ● US Airways plane crashes into New York Hudson River, Photo: AP


November 27th, 2001

Hubble Space Telescope: (HST) is a space telescope that was carried into orbit by a Space Shuttle in 1990 and remains in operation

Hydrogen atmosphere is discovered on the extrasolar planet Osiris by the Hubble Space Telescope, the first atmosphere detected on an extrasolar planet.

Wikipedia  Photo: Hubble Space Telescope; Artist's concept of the star Fomalhaut and the Jupiter-type planet that the Hubble Space Telescope observed. A ring of debris appears to surround Fomalhaut as well. The planet, called Fomalhaut b, orbits the 200-million-year-old star every 872 years. credit: ESA, NASA, and L. Calcada (ESO for STScI); Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), Visible Light (2006-04-26); Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) credit NASA.


November 27th, 2005

Isabelle Dinoire, pictured in 2006 almost one year after she received the world's first partial face transplant in Northern France

The first partial human face transplant is completed in Amiens, France.

Wikipedia  Photo: Isabella Dinoire was mauled by her dog in 2005 and received the first face transplant to restore her nose, lips, chin and cheek. While she will be on immune-system repressing drugs for the rest of her life, she has experienced minimal side effects and doctors consider her surgery a success. credit Reuters. ● Isabelle Dinoire, pictured in 2006 almost one year after she received the world's first partial face transplant in Northern France. credit Associated Press.


November 27th, 2009

List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

Modern conflicts in the Middle East and terrorist attacks:
2009 - Nevsky Express bombing (2009); A bomb explodes on the Nevsky Express train between Moscow and Saint Petersburg derailing it and causing 28 deaths and 96 injuries.

Wikipedia  Photo: Middle East satellite image, NASA. ● Camels are seen early morning on a beach in the Marina area of Dubai October 16, 2008. (Steve Crisp, Reuters) ● A portrait of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad burns during clashes between rebels and Syrian troops in Selehattin, near Aleppo, on July 23, 2012. (Bulent Kilic, AFP / GettyImages) ● Egyptians gather in their thousands in Tahrir Square to mark the one year anniversary of the revolution on Jan. 25, 2012 in Cairo Egypt. Tens of thousands have gathered in the square on the first anniversary of the Arab uprising which toppled President Hosni Mubarak. (Jeff J Mitchell, Getty Images) ● Black smoke rises above the Tehran skyline as supporters of Mir Hossein Mousavi burn tires and other material in the streets as they fight running battles with police to protest the declared results of the Iranian presidential election in Tehran, Iran, Saturday, June 13, 2009. (Ben Curtis, AP) ● The Iron Dome defense system fires to interecpt incoming missiles from Gaza in the port town of Ashdod, Thursday, Nov. 15, 2012. (Tsafrir Abayov, AP)